Merale FeĒahi-Vehapi¹, FaĒbardha Jonuzi² ,FlorenĒa Jonuzi³

¹Department of Finance and Accounting, Faculty of Economy, University of Tetovo, North Macedonia, [email protected], ORCID: 0000-0002-0572-891X

²Kicevo Municipality, North Macedonia, [email protected], ORCID: 0009-0009-1852-2054

³Master student in the Department of Finance, Banking and Insurance, Faculty of Economy, University of Tetovo, North Macedonia, [email protected], ORCID:0009-0001-1713-449X


The twin deficits hypothesis is widely considered one of the most frequently employed phenomena in the economic literature. An econometric analysis of the twin deficit hypothesis is of special importance in understanding the perspective on macroeconomic stability in the Republic of North Macedonia. This paper aims to empirically test the validity of this hypothesis in the Republic of North Macedonia. To do so, we utilized quarterly data on Macedonia’s budget deficit, the current account deficit, exchange rate, interest rate, GDP, government expenditure, and money supply, starting from the first quarter of 2001 to the fourth quarter of 2022. Through the application of the ARDL model, the study found that between the variables taken into analysis, there exists a short and long-run relationship. More specifically exchange rate, government expenditure, and GDP result in improvement on the budget deficit, both in the short run and long run. While current account deficit, interest rate, and money supply result in worsening the budget deficit, both in the short run and long run.

Keywords: North Macedonia; twin deficits; budget deficit; current account deficit; ARDL model

For more please open this linkPaper 1: Merale FeĒahi-Vehapi¹, FaĒbardha Jonuzi² ,FlorenĒa Jonuzi³


Enriko Ceko¹

¹Business Administration and Information Technology Department, Faculty of Economy, Canadian Institute of Technology, [email protected], ORCID: 0000-0002-3372-2785


The main goal for the realization of this study was to verify the level of relations between digitalization and cyber security. The path followed for the realization of this study was the creation of the idea for the study and the relationship between the issues that were considered, the search for the most appropriate and freshest literature, the collection of data for this study, the raising of hypotheses, the processing of data and performing the regression analysis, extracting the results, verifying the main hypothesis, and from them reaching the relevant conclusions and recommendations. The main recommendation of this study is that investment in digitalization also affects investments in cyber security and both together help the development of countries and their integration between each other and beyond, while the relations be- tween digitalization, cyber security and quality management are embodied at ISO standards, especially at ISO 38500, and ISO 27000 family of standards.

Keywords: digitalization, cyber security, regression analysis, ISO standards, quality management.

For more please open this linkPaper 2: Enriko Ceko¹


Jaroslav Kollmann¹, Daniel Chamrada², Pavel Cepák³

¹Department of Economics, The Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communications, University of Žilina, Slovakia, [email protected], ORCID: 0000-0003-4110-145X

²Department of Economics, The Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communications, University of Žilina, Slovakia, [email protected], ORCID: 0000-0002-3934-7840

³The Faculty of Corporate Strategy, Department of Management, Institute of Technology and Businesses in České Budějovice, Czech Republic, [email protected]


The rapid advancement of technology in the era of the fourth industrial revolution has significantly transformed organizational management practices. This study examines the influence of technological progress on organizational management, specifically analyzing the effects of data analysis and digital management methods in response to these changes. The main objective is to determine how these technological advancements impact enterprises of various sizes in the Czech Republic. The research employed comparative and analytical approaches, utilizing survey data collected from numerous organizations. Concrete methods used in the study include a comprehensive questionnaire survey, comparative analysis, and statistical correlation analysis to assess the significance of technologies based on the classification of enterprise size. The findings demonstrate substantial disparities in the implementation and advantages of technology contingent upon the magnitude of the organization, with smaller and larger enterprises exhibiting enhanced flexibility and deliberate assimilation of novel technologies. The main conclusion is that proficient administration of technology results in competitive advantages and operational efficiencies. Companies are advised to customize their technology strategies based on their available resources and market requirements. Further analysis explores the connections between investments in technology and other organizational elements such as financial resources and personnel, highlighting the importance of developing coherent plans that successfully incorporate technology into the overall structure of the organization.

Keywords: Technology Integration, Industry 4.0, Organizational strategy, Business Competitiveness

For more please open this linkPaper 3: Jaroslav Kollmann¹, Daniel Chamrada², Pavel Cepák³


ShefqeĒ Meda¹, Ervin DomazeĒ²

¹Department of Electronics & Telecommunications Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Canadian Institute of Technology, Albania, [email protected], ORCID:0000-0003-3654-6606

¹Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Balkan University, Skopje, North Macedonia, [email protected], ORCID:0000-0003-3654-6606

²Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Balkan University, Skopje, North Macedonia, [email protected], ORCID:0000-0001-7743-469X


The recent progress in Machine Learning (Géron, 2022) and particularly Deep Learning (Goodfellow, 2016) models exposed the limitations of traditional computer architectures. Modern algorithms demonstrate highly increased computational demands and data requirements that most existing architectures cannot handle efficiently. These demands result in training speed, inference latency, and power consumption bottlenecks, which is why advanced methods of computer architecture optimization are required to enable the development of ML/DL-dedicated efficient hardware platforms (Engineers, 2019). The optimization of computer architecture for applications of ML/DL becomes critical, due to the tremendous demand for efficient execution of complex computations by Neural Networks (Goodfellow, 2016). This paper reviewed the numerous approaches and methods utilized to optimize computer architecture for ML/DL workloads. The following sections contain substantial discussion concerning the hardware-level optimizations, enhancements of traditional software frameworks and their unique versions, and innovative explorations of architectures. In particular, we discussed hardware including specialized accelerators, which can improve the performance and efficiency of a computation system using various techniques, specifically describing accelerators like CPUs (multicore) (Hennessy, 2017), GPUs (Hwu, 2015) and TPUs (Contributors, 2017), parallelism in multicore architectures, data movement in hardware systems, especially techniques such as caching and sparsity, compression, and quantization, other special techniques and configurations, such as using specialized data formats, and measurement sparsity. Moreover, this paper provided a comprehensive analysis of current trends in software frameworks, Data Movement optimization strategies (A.Bienz, 2021), sparsity, quantization and compression methods, using ML for architecture exploration, and, DVFS (Hennessy, 2017),, which provides strategies for maximizing hardware utilization and power consumption during training, machine learning, dynamic voltage, and frequency scaling, runtime systems. Finally, the paper discussed research opportunity directions and the possibilities of computer architecture optimization influence in various industrial and academic areas of ML/DL technologies.

The objective of implementing these optimization techniques is to largely minimize the current gap between the computational needs of ML/DL algorithms and the current hardware’s capability. This will lead to significant improvements in training times, enable real-time inference for various applications, and ultimately unlock the full potential of cutting-edge machine learning algorithms.

Keywords: Computer Architecture Optimization, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Parallelism, Sparsity, Data Movement Optimization, Quantization, Compression, Software Framework Optimization, DVFS, TPU, CPU, GPU, TensorFlow, Pytorch.

For more please open this linkPaper 4: Shefqet Meda¹, Ervin Domazet²


Eralda Caushi¹, Klejda Caushi² , Malvina Halilaj³

¹Department Of Software Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Canadian Institute of Technology , Albania, [email protected], ORCID: 0009-0004-8667-5320

²Department of Economics and Business, Faculty of Economics, Political Sciences, Catholic University Our Lady of Good Councel , Tirana, Albania, [email protected], ORCID: 0009-0003-4163-3322

³Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana , Albania, [email protected], ORCID: 0009-0001-1981-128X


This paper explores the critical aspects of ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) transformation in the Albanian telecommunications industry. The focus is on SAP tools that include asset modules, the platform for managing ERP stock and inventory, and a new frontline platform for selling device and accessories for all the channels by supporting both mobile and fixed devices. The telecom industry has evolved significantly, and the need for efficient operations, better integration, enhanced security, and improved user experiences has become dominant. Cloudification of the SAP solution running in GCP is part of the revolution. The technical implementation is strongly related to the advantages of an ERP transformation within the telecommunications industry. These benefits include enhanced efficiency and productivity, seamless integration, and impeccable data accuracy, bolstered security and compliance, and an overall enhancement in user experiences. Furthermore, this implementation also navigates the challenges and critical considerations essential in this transformative journey. Re-usability is a key component since the successful implementation in a single market for a single local market, can be replicated in the other markets as well by justifying the high implementation cost of 3 million Euros and the involvement of 32 local stakeholder and 45 global stakeholders.

Keywords: ERP, cloudification, SAP, GCP, telecommunications.

For more please open this linkPaper 5: Eralda Caushi¹, Klejda Caushi² , Malvina Halilaj³


Lule Basha ¹, Llukan Puka ²

¹Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania, [email protected], ORCID: 0000-0003-3790-601X

²Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania, [email protected], ORCID: 0000-0003-4121-3232

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) in Albania is a measure of inflation that tracks changes in the prices of a basket of goods and services typically purchased by urban households in the country. It is a vital economic indicator used to assess changes in the cost of living and the overall price level in Albania. There are several factors that affect the levels and progress of the CPI, among them we have chosen: Euro/Lek and USD/Lek exchange rates, import levels, the monetary base, and salary data, from January 2007 to September 2023. In this paper, we investigate the efficiency of machine learning methods in determining the factors that have the greatest impact on the CPI.

In our analysis, we assess the effectiveness of decision-tree models, Random Forest and XGBoost algorithms, in predicting the CPI behavior in Albania. Based on our empirical findings, we conclude that the monetary base and wages play a crucial role in influencing the CPI, with imports and exchange rates following closely in significance. Additionally, our results indicate that the Random Forest model demonstrates superior accuracy and demands less parameter tuning time compared to the alternatives. This research underscores the critical role of model selection in achieving precision and dependability in CP! forecasting. It underscores the immense potential of machine learning models in enhancing forecasting accuracy. The implications of this study are significant, as they can foster the creation of more precise and dependable forecasting models, equipping policymakers with a deeper understanding of economic stability.

Keywords: 4 Consumer Price Index, Exchange rate, Imports, Machine learning, Decision-tree.

For more please open this linkPaper 1: Lule Basha¹, Llukan Puka²


Author(s): Enriko Ceko

Business Administration and Information Technology Department, Faculty of Economy, Canadian Institute of Technology, [email protected] , ORCID: O000-0002-3372-2785


My aim in this article was to illustrate the relationships between the Western Balkan nations’ ISO 27001 index and the cyber security index, given the growing global interest in cyber security.

The primary findings of this study were derived from the research methodology, which involved gathering data and information about the degree of cyber security applicationsin the Western Balkans, asrepresented by the cyber security index, as well as data about the degree of ISO 27001 standard application in Western Balkan countries, processing data for ISO 27001 certificates, creating an index of ISO 27001 certificates, and managing a regressive analysis on the relationships between the cyber security index and the ISO 27001 certificates index, while examining the path toward EU integration, they are also working to address concerns related to cyber security. This is because gaining a competitive edge in fields like information technology, artificial intelligence, digitalization, e-commerce, and e-government necessitates robust cyber defenses.

The primary suggestion is that Western Balkan nations may better respond to cyberattacks and cyberthreats by implementing ISO standards including the ISO 27000 family of standards, particularly

ISO 27001.

Keywords: Cyber security index, |SO 27001 index, Western Balkans, information technology

For more please open this linkPaper 2: Enriko Ceko


Author(s): Elvira Fetahu’, Shpëtim Çerri’, Marsel Sulanjaku²

Tural Alakbarov

Azerbaijan State University of Economics (UNEC}, Azerbaijan, [email protected], ORCID: 0000-0001-5145-0448


In the dynamic landscape of service-sphere enterprises, accurate and transparent financial and management reporting plays a crucial role in assessing the company’s performance and making informed business decisions. One essential aspect of these reports is the reflection of accounting information related to reserves. Reserves act as a safety net, allowing businesses to mitigate risks, fulfill obligations, and invest in future growth. This article aims to explore the significance of improving the reflection of accounting information of reserves in financial and management reports in service-sphere enterprises and highlights strategies to achieve this objective effectively. Accurate and transparent financial and management reporting is essential for service-sphere enterprises to evaluate their performance, monitor costs, and make informed business decisions. Among the crucial elements of these reports is the reflection of accounting information related to inventory. Inventory represents a significant asset for service-based organizations, and effectively capturing its accounting information is crucial for assessing profitability, managing costs, and optimizing operations. Accurate reflection of inventory in financial reports is crucial for service-sphere enterprises as it provides valuable insights into the organization’s financial health and operational efficiency. By disclosing inventory-related information, such as valuation methods, carrying costs, and turnover ratios, financial reports facilitate decision-making for investors, creditors, and other stakeholders. Transparent reporting of inventory also enhances the credibility of financial statements, promoting trust and confidence in the organization’s financial position. Improving inventory accounting in service enterprises is crucial for maintaining efficient operations and maximizing profitability. In this article, we will talk about ways to further improve inventory accounting in service enterprises using modern methods and modern technologies.

Keywords: accounting, inventory, finance, costs, assets, management

For more please open this linkPaper 3: Tural Alakbarov


Author(s): Eugen Musta¹, Elvin Meka²

¹Department of Business Administration, Canadian Institute of Technology, Albania, [email protected], ORCID: O000-0003-2861-1172

²European University of Tirana, Albania, [email protected], ORCID: O000-0003-3404-7475


This study aims to investigate the anticipated importance of the inaugural corporate bond issuance through public offering on the Albanian Stock Exchange (ALSE) and its potential ramifications for the bond market, investors, the broader financial sector, and the Albanian economy. Given that the ALSE has been predominantly characterized by government bonds, the initial public offering of the first corporate bond represents a noteworthy landmark that could facilitate the advancement of the Albanian financial market. We will scrutinize how this progression may result in heightened market liquidity, by appealing to both domestic and international investors, thereby increasing the aggregate trading volume and liquidity, within the exchange. Additionally, we will deliberate on the function of corporate bonds in diversifying the array of financial instruments accessible on the ALSE, which may assist in risk mitigation and the cultivation of a more stable financial environment.

Moreover, we will analyze how the issuance of corporate bonds could promote superior corporate governance practices, culminating in increased transparency, more rigorous financial reporting, and bolstered investor confidence. Finally, we will contemplate the potential of corporate bond issuances to stimulate economic growth by supplying companies with an alternative avenue of funding for expansion and investment initiatives. This can result in job generation, enhanced productivity, and comprehensive economic development in Albania. By examining the anticipated consequences of the first corporate bond issuance on the ALSE, this study will illuminate the potential advantages and challenges associated with this development, laying the groundwork for future inquiries as the market undergoes further evolution.

Keywords: Albanian Stock Exchange (ALSE): initial public offering, corporate bond issuance; market liquidity; financial sector diversification; economic growth.

For more please open this linkPaper 4: Eugen Musta¹, Elvin Meka²


Author(s): Viktorija Atanasovska-Noveski¹, Venera Krliu, Tijana Angjelkovska

¹University American College Skopje, North Macedonia, [email protected]


The youth unemployment in Macedonia has been high and persistent for the last three decades, despite the many active labour policies for young persons. This paper examines the determinants of youth unemployment in the Macedonian labour market using quantitative and qualitative analysis. In order to empirically estimate the relevant determinants of youth unemployment in Macedonia we employ the two-step conditional mixed processes model (CMP) using the school to work transition survey (SWTS) by the International Labour Organization. The quantitative analysis is accompanied by qualitative analysis to further explore and explain the social-economic issues. The qualitative analysis includes semi-structured interviews and focus groups conducted in different regions of Macedonia. The empirical results indicate that gender, age, the wealth of the household, the education level and regional characteristics are the main determinants of youth unemployment in Macedonia. According to the findings of the qualitative analysis, the most of the young people pursue education and live with their families who provide them with financial support to cover their expenses. Consequently, the young persons have a diminished interest to search for a job and this attitude on long run could have a dubious effect and influence on the personal choices. Overall, there is a long school to work transition period, which discourages young people to actively participate in the labor market.

Keywords: youth unemployment, job search, discourage workers

For more please open this linkPaper 5: Viktorija Atanasovska-Noveski¹, Venera Krliu, Tijana Angjelkovska


Author(s): Julian Saraci

Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economy, Canadian Institute of Technology, Albania, [email protected], ORCID: |D:0009-0002-9495-7219


The interplay between tax divergence and financial reporting in Albania has assumed growing importance. This research, grounded in a post-positivist paradigm, seeks to elucidate the connection between these variables and discern which exerts the greater influence. The methodology is a qualitative dimension involved in the analysis of secondary data from businesses and the examination of tax laws and accounting standards. We elaborate the topic by taking on the one hand the main items of Accounting Standards and on the other hand the main items of the tax legislation in force. Furthermore, the research incorporates a quantitative component using a questionnaire to collect perceptions from professionals. This adds a descriptive or cross-sectional element to the research, but the primary emphasis remains on exploration and understanding, making it predominantly an exploratory research type, employing an ex-post-facto methodology.

The study reveals that in the Albanian context, tax regulations wield a substantial impact on the practices of financial reporting. Variations in tax laws often prompt the application of creative accounting techniques, leading to information imbalances that can have ramifications for decision-making. Notable instances have illuminated how tax divergence can yield discrepancies in financial reporting, compelling the necessity for regulatory adaptations and elevated reporting standards.

From this research, several pivotal recommendations have emerged. These emphasize the synchronization of legal and accounting frameworks through the reduction of permissible accounting and tax methods. This strategic alignment aims to enhance comparability while minimizing opportunities for divergence. Management is encouraged to acknowledge the significance of effective tax planning, institute a robustly supervised Code of Ethics, and actively endorse its observance. Tax authorities are urged to invest in expanded training, with an urgent imperative for streamlining tax legislation. This paper offers valuable insights for stakeholders such as investors, management, policymakers, regulators, to enhance financial transparency, benefit and compliance by addressing the impact of tax divergence on financial reporting in Albania.

Keywords: tax divergence, financial reporting, tax laws, accounting standards

For more please open this linkPaper 6: Julian Saraci


Author(s): Zeynep Sagir1, Anela Cokovié2 and Erna Berbi3

1 International University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, [email protected], ORCID: 0000-0002-3879-3347

2International University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, [email protected]

3International University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, [email protected]


The majority of people, in our today’s fast-paced world, find it difficult to book a suitable date and time for their vehicle to be serviced/repaired that fits their overly tight schedule. Keeping in mind that in order to get their vehicle repaired, the client has no other option but to bring their vehicle to the mechanic on their own and figure out how to pass the time. They may either wait till their car is repaired or return home or to work whilst also determining their travel choices. Exactly these issues generally postpone regular car servicing, which may lead to an increase of unmaintained vehicles on the road, causing additional traffic problems e.g., car accidents. The aim is to build such an application which will provide car owners with a convenient, time-saving and personalized car servicing experience, aiding them in preserving the quality and longevity of their cars. The application eliminates the necessity for customers to drive their vehicles to a certain location by enabling them to arrange a service that is suitable for them. The application will assist service providers in improving their customer service through two software versions. The first is a web-based version for administrators, allowing them to manage bookings and add or delete services. The second version is a mobile application reserved specifically for the mechanics where they can access their assigned services and communicate with customers by sending requests for additional recommended services for their approval. Overall, the application provides a comprehensive approach to car maintenance which allows the customers and the service providers to have a systematic view of the issues at hand as well as a technological enhancement of services that ensure value to the users.

Keywords: On-demand car servicing; Mobile app; Car maintenance; Customer support; Pick-up and drop-off service

For more please open this linkPaper 7: Zeynep Sagir1, Anela Cokovié2 and Erna Berbi3


Author(s): Reis Mulita

Center for Innovation, Research and Development, Faculty of Economy, Canadian Institute of Technology, [email protected], ORCID: OO00-0003-3911-469X


Cybersecurity has emerged as a critical concern on a global scale, and Albania is no exception. This paper delves into Albania’s current cybersecurity challenges, shedding light on existing vulnerabilities and presenting recommendations to enhance the nation’s resilience against cyber threats, considering the country’s E.U. perspectives. The paper explores critical facets of cybersecurity, including the vulnerabilities within the country’s infrastructure, the regulatory framework, and the prevalent skills gap. By addressing these aspects, a comprehensive overview is provided, outlining Albania’s challenges in safeguarding its digital assets.

The methodology used in this paper applies a theoretical approach based mainly on qualitative methods using secondary data and information, analyzing, comparing, and evaluating sources coming mainly from secondary sources, national and international ones. Through this method, the paper aims to offer a nuanced understanding of the cybersecurity landscape in Albania and its E.U. challenges regarding cybersecurity perspectives.

In summary, this research concludes that by addressing cybersecurity challenges, Albania will be more effectively integrated into the E.U. and the global market economy, benefiting well-being and creating a more secure society.

Keywords: Cybersecurity, Albania, E.U. Challenges, Cybersecurity Index, Regulations

For more please open this linkPaper 8: Reis Mulita


Author(s): Jaroslav Kollmann¹, Pavel Cepák²

¹The Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transportand Communications, Department of Economics, University of Žilina, Slovakia

²The Faculty of Corporate Strategy, Department of Management, Institute of Technology and Businesses in České Budějovice, Czech Republic,

ORCID ID: 0000-0003-4110-145X

[email protected] (*corresponding author), [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2752

This paper aims to explore current market trends adopted by technology giants Apple Inc., Samsung, and Xiaomi and their impact on revenue generation. Through content analysis of internal documents, websites. and social media, a SWOT analysis and correlation analysis were conducted to identify the trends used by these companies. The findings indicate that companies with effective trend strategies achieved higher revenues. The prevalent trends include machine learning, artificial intelligence, corporate sustainability. implications, and product quality optimization. The results of this paper provide valuable insights for businesses environmental seeking to align their strategies with current trends, serve as a teaching resource, and offer a foundation for further research on the impact of trends on sales. Additional data can be collected to expand the investigation to other relevant subjects.

Keywords: Trends, quality, innovation, technology companies, revenue

For more please open this linkPaper 1: Jaroslav Kollmann¹, Pavel Cepák²


Author(s): Dimitrios A. Karras*

*Lecturer, Faculty of Engineering, Canadian Institute of Technology (CIT), Tirana, Albania


Corresponding author email address: [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2753


Sustainable development is nowadays a key concern and major issue in scientific, political and decision making discussions in national and international organizations, enterprises and societies at all levels. Moreover, it has been emerged as a major multidisciplinary research field for all sciences including formal sciences, natural sciences, engineering and technology, applied sciences as well as economics and social sciences. On the other hand, the role of digitalization and automation as engines of the transformation of business, economies and societies to meet the currently defined sustainability goals is critical. Therefore, there is increased coupling between digitalization, automation and sustainability in terms of multidisciplinary research studies worldwide. In the herein research effort the goal is to analyze this emerging coupling by investigating state of the art research efforts in these multidisciplinary fields with regards to the Albania case. The investigation of such state of the art trends spans the years after 2015, since very few studies were conducted before, especially in Albania. But worldwide too, if it is considered that the term sustainable development was defined unofficially in 1972 and officially in 1987 and only during the last decade systematic research studies started appearing.

Keywords: Sustainable development, digitalization, digital transformation, automation, research in Albania

For more please open this linkPaper 2: Dimitrios A. Karras


Author(s): Elvira Fetahu’, Shpëtim Çerri’, Marsel Sulanjaku²

Department of Marketing and Engineering, University of Elbasan “Aleksander Xhuvani”, Albania ORCID ID:

²Department of Accounting and Finance, University of Elbasan “Aleksander Xhuvani”, Albania

Corresponding author: Elvira Fetahu, Vice Rector, University of Elbasan “Aleksander Xhuvani”, Albania.

+355 5452593 email: [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2754


BACKGROUND: The dynamics of market changes and consumer demands have led to new challenges for businesses, including their offers and their customer service. These challenges are closely related to their ability to react, adjust and adapt to these changes in order to survive or created competitive advantage. A key component of these ongoing efforts is human resources, which must have the appropriate abilities, knowledge, and skills to align with market and consumer changes.

OBJECTIVE: The object of this paper is to explore the needs for professional skills of tourism-sector businesses in the region of Elbasan and compare them with the actual academic offer of Faculty of Economy at “Aleksander

Xhuvani” University of Elbasan. METHODS:in our study 70 businesses of the hotel-tourism sector and 43 businesses of the production sector

were selected based in the Directorate of Taxes in Elbasan and the Elbasan Chamber of Commerce and Industry. RESULTS: In our study a major number of the respondents admit to have difficulties in adoption with the new job where 13.6% list professional ability and 13.6% soft skills such as communication as aspects of work in which thay had more difficulties to adopt.

CONCLUSIONS: There is an evident gap between the nature of the degree offered by higher education institutions and the job positions of the graduates. Keywords: Higher education, Curricula, Tourism, Human Resources, Skills

For more please open this linkPaper 3: Elvira Fetahu’, Shpëtim Çerri’, Marsel Sulanjaku²


Author(s): Julian Saraci, ACCA

*Lecturer, Faculty of Economy. Canadian Institute of Technology (CIT Tirana, Albania. Corresponding author email address: julian [email protected]

ORCID ID:0009-0002-9495-7219

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2755


This research paper endeavors to investigate the impact of dividend policy on stock price volatility from the listed companies on Türkiye Stock Exchange. A sample of 30 companies from six major sectors of TSE based upon the consistent dividend paying behavior has been selected for the period of 2017-2019. The descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis is used for data analysis. The study has used panel data for analysis. Dividend policy is denoted by two main variables i.e. dividend payout and dividend yield The study has also included some control variables such as size of firm, asset growth, debt level and earning volatility to identify their impact on stock prices The study has found a significant negative relationship between dividend yield and stock price volatility and an insignificant relationship between dividend payout and stock price volatility. The study has also found a significant negative relationship between size and volatility, an insignificant negative relationship between earning volatility and market volatility and a significant positive relationship between asset growth and volatility. The findings from this research paper are expected to contribute to the literature of dividend policy bym providing empirical evidence from Turkiye Stock Market. The findings from this study also intended to provide useful quidance to individual investors, institutional investors, corporate managers and other potential groups in Türkiye

Keywords: Dividend policy, stock market volatility, dividend payout, dividend yield, asset growth, debt level, earning volatility

For more please open this linkPaper 4: Julian Saraci


Author(s): Enriko Ceko’, Orjeta Jaupaj²

Lecturer, Faculty of Economy, Canadian Institute of Technology (CIT) ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3372-2785

Corresponding author email address: [email protected]

²Institute of GeoSciences, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Albania

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2756


Abstract Healthy business ecosystems are necessary for competitive advantage, the major force of the trade economy, and free markets. Business sustainability requires entrepreneurship skills, knowledge, and competencies, as well as standardization of processes, procedures, etc., which relate to quality management patterns. Entrepreneurship can be measured, and so can quality management. Most international, regional. and local business organizations, individual businesses, as well as several researchers, assert that there is a connection between entrepreneurship and quality management, especially with ISO standards. Therefore, it is necessary to research the relations between entrepreneurship and quality management to provide a clear insight into the issue. This study is based on an analysis of regression between the Index of Entrepreneurship and the Index of ISO Standards, to verify Hypothesis H1 (There is not any relation between E Index and ISO Standards Index) against Hypothesis HO (There is a strong relation between E Index and ISO Standards Index). The results of the research show that entrepreneurship requires scientific management of factors of production, employing skills, knowledge, and competencies, as well as using principles of quality management, achieving an economic (competitive) advantage, so, a connection and relations between entrepreneurship and management of quality (standards of quality management, ISO), is indispensable. It can be stated from the conducted research that there is no relation between entrepreneurship and ISO standards yet, even though it is highly needed and that should exist to promote sustainable entrepreneurship with no support at all.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, business sustainability, competitive advantage, quality management, ISO standards, ISO standards Index.

For more please open this linkPaper 5: Enriko Ceko’, Orjeta Jaupaj²


Author(s): Dr. Parashqevi Draci*, Majlinda Velcani²,

University “Aleksander Moisiu” Durres, Public Administration Department, Durres, Albania,

ORCID ID: 0009-0006-3333-3524

2 University “Aleksander Moisiu” Durres, Public Administration Department, Durres, Albania,

*Corresponding author email address: [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2757


This study aims to highlight the perception of residents about public services provided by the local government and residents’ perception of participation in public decision-making for the allocation of economic resources by the local government. The research method in this study is based on the study of literature, analysis, and monitoring carried out by independent institutions and organizations on community participation in local government decision-making (Desk research) and observation through interviewing residents in the area of study for the collection of primary data. The results of this study show the fragility of the approach of community involvement in local government for local planning and development in the study area. The improvement of public services and the active participation of residents in local planning and development is one of the most important objectives of local government reform. Efforts for sustainable development, referring also to the data of this study, should be accompanied by efforts to build and consolidate the community field.

Keywords: Public decision-making, community participation, public services, local development.

For more please open this linkPaper 6: Dr. Parashqevi Draci*, Majlinda Velcani²


Author(s): Assoc. Prof. Reis Mulita*

* Canadian Institute of Technology, Faculty of Economy, CIRD Economy, Tirana, Albania
Corresponding author email address: [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.637

Challenging the global warming and its social and economic consequences to the society, in January 2015, the General Assembly of UN, began the negotiation process on the post-2015 development agenda. The process culminated in the subsequent adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, with 17 SDGs at its core, at the UN Sustainable Development Summit in September 2015. (UN, 25 September 2015). Driving solutions to these challenges the EU also launched the European Green Deal as part of its permanent actions to transform and reshape the model of economic development generating wellbeing’s while tackling global worming consequences to the society and nature. The EU Green Deal is a new growth strategy that aims to transform the EU into a fair and prosperous society, with a modern, resource-efficient and competitive economy where there are no net emissions of greenhouse gases in 2050 and where economic growth is decoupled from resource use. COM (2019). EU Green Deal includes climate action, deforestation, biodiversity protection and restoration, circular economy, critical materials and batteries, sustainable blue economy, international ocean governance, plastic pollution and green transition.

For more please open this linkPaper 1: Assoc. Prof. Reis Mulita*


Author(s): PhD. Besarta Tafa*

* Canadian Institute of Technology, Faculty of Economy, Business Administration Department, Tirana, Albania
Corresponding author email address: [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.638

For more please open this linkPaper 2: PhD. Besarta Tafa*


Author(s): Armando Elezia*, Dimitrios A. Karrasa**

* Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.639


In nowadays, communications are expanding in very high rates. New technologies are being born and some of them are taking so much importance in people’s lives. In a situation where people’s needs are getting more complicated and everybody’s lifestyle is advancing to another level, bigger and better infrastructure is needed. Managing all this process can’t be anymore a step by step process. It is strictly needed to evolve in automated process. Network configuration and reconfiguration may be a repetitive process, time consuming, and error prone process. To address this problem this paper is going to shed light on the benefits of an automated configuration and topology verification process. To this end, a proof of concept system, Netmiko, has been used in a case study. Netmiko scripts are able to read the current network state, can apply predefined configurations loaded from text-files or csv files, and automatically verify the network state. The goals of this paper are to demonstrate the development of Netmiko scripts, to illustrate the simplicity in the implementation, to compare the automated network system reconfiguration to a fully manual one, and, finally, to discuss potential pros and cons in switching to an automated network configuration process in everyday practice. A simple Packet Tracer simulation in joint with a GNS3 simulation are involved to evaluate this proof of concept. In Packet tracer a manual network configuration is performed while in GNS3 an automated network configuration is developed.
Keywords: network configuration management, automated configuration management,
computer networks, packet tracer, GNS3 , Cisco IOS XR, Python, Netmiko Library

For more please open this linkPaper 3: Armando Elezia*, Dimitrios A. Karrasa**


Author(s): Dimitrova Makedonka*, Bundaleska Elena**, Mojsovska Salamovska Snezana***

* President, Sustainability Institute – EKOS Skopje, 1000 Skopje, North Macedonia
** University American College Skopje, School of Business Economics and Management, III Makedonska
Brigada, 60, 1000 Skopje, North Macedonia
*** University St. Kliment Ohridski Bitola, Faculty of Economics Prilep, 7500 Prilep, North Macedonia
[email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.640


Leadership is one of the most researched topics in the contemporary business organisations. Over the decades, leadership and various leadership styles have proven to be key to successful organisations. As the world is currently experiencing many transformations and new generations of employees take over, the leadership styles evolve and leaders seek for new approaches to motivate and inspire employees in achieving growth both on individual and organisational level. Accordingly, this paper explores two distinctive leadership styles, more specifically, democratic or transformational and autocratic or transactional. The research is based on the McGregors’ Theory X and Theory Y of leadership. As such, X Theory argues that employees avoid tasks and responsibility, desire to be controlled and lack ambition, while Y Theory assumes that employees are creative and positive about their work, and take actions to accomplish the organisational goals. Furthermore, the paper builds upon the theoretical concept of the previous research body on leadership styles and the importance of intrinsic motivation. The concept of intrinsic motivation is further enriched with the gender perspective. The analysis anticipates quantitative research based on a previously validated instrument that was implemented among 187 employees in the biggest Macedonian electrical appliances retail company. Findings suggest that there is positive relationship between Y leadership styles and intrinsic motivation. In addition, it was identified the both male and female demonstrate similar behavior relative to Intrinsic motivation. This research endeavour, shall contribute towards understanding the current practices and desired leadership styles in a dynamic organizational setting that seeks physical interaction with the customers in a highly competitive setting such as the electric appliances retail industry in the Republic of North Macedonia. It offers grounds for further research to overcome the limitations of this paper such as the sample size, male gender prevalence and generalisation for retail industry of electrical appliances as a whole given the administration of the instrument in a single company.
Keywords: Motivation, Gender, X/Y Theory, North Macedonia, Retail sector

For more please open this linkPaper 4: Dimitrova Makedonka*, Bundaleska Elena**, Mojsovska Salamovska Snezana***


Author(s): Dr. Enriko Ceko*

* Canadian Institute of Technology Faculty of Economy Business Administration and Information
Technology department Street “Xhanfize Keko”, No 12, Tirana, Albania Postal Code 1001
Corresponding author email address: [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.641


My goal in conducting this study is to present strong connections between innovation and business sophistication, worldwide, since innovation and business sophistication issues, related to quality and quality management too, have been subject to increasing interest all around the world. The methodology of the research was collecting data and information about the innovation index and business sophistication worldwide and describing the newly introduced ISO 56000 family of standards, handling descriptive statistics for innovation index and business sophistication as well as a correlation and regressive analysis (inferential statistics) for relations between innovation index and business sophistication, which resulted on the main conclusion of this study that relations between innovation and business sophistication, statistically verified, are strong, so ISO 56000 standards family application is needed in the time of business sophistication, achieving competitive advantage. The main recommendation is that application of ISO standards generally and the application of the ISO 56000 family of standards helps companies to strengthen their commitment to their clients, improving innovation and business sophistication activities, processes and procedures, and economies worldwide to achieve a competitive advantage. Keywords: Innovation, business sophistication, ISO standards, quality, quality management, competitive advantage.

For more please open this linkPaper 5: Enriko Ceko*


Author(s): PhD cand. Erjona Deshati* Prof. Dr. Klodiana Gorica**

* Canadian Institute of Technology, Faculty of Economy, Department of Business Administration & IT,
Tirana, Albania. Corresponding author email address: [email protected]
** University of Tirana, Faculty of Economy, Marketing Department, Tirana, Albania

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.642


The purpose of the paper is to critically evaluate and synthesize the existing body of completed and recorded work produced by researchers, scholars and practitioners in the field of business strategy, with a particular emphasis on investigating the strategic responses, including changes in the strategies, structures and cultures, to name a few, applied by companies in response to changes in the global business environment. The business environment in the 21st century has become very dynamic and keeps on changing over time. The market has been characterized by a high level of uncertainties that managers need to respond quickly if their companies are to survive in the market. The Literature Review was obtained by analysing relevant journal papers that discuss the main developments and current debates in the field, from 2016 and on. In this regard, Business Source Complete (EBSCO), ABI/Inform Collection (ProQuest), ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar databases were queried. As a contribution to the literature, the paper will highlight the strategic responses that companies can develop to survive and outperform competitors in an uncertain and turbulent environment.
Keywords: Strategy, entrepreneurship, external influences, dynamic business environment,

For more please open this linkPaper 6: PhD cand. Erjona Deshati* Prof. Dr. Klodiana Gorica**


Author(s): Blendi Shima* Enxhi Alicka**

* Canadian Institute of Technology, Faculty of Economy, Department of Business Administration & IT,
Tirana, Albania Corresponding author email address: [email protected]
** Canadian Institute of Technology, Faculty of Economy, Department of Business Administration,
Tirana, Albania Corresponding author email address: [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.643


This study provides an analysis of the situation of Albanian companies in dealing with implementing innovative strategies and the internal work environment in relation to innovation support. Intrapreneurship has recently been introduced into economics and business strategies which is why this study is being conducted to evaluate how prepared are employees in Albanian companies to apply innovative ideas to improve the life of companies. The main aim is to investigate how active Albanian companies are with innovation and intrapreneurship aspects. This research paper analyses five different aspects that cover both intrapreneurship and innovation in companies in Albania, including top management support, work discretion/ autonomy, rewards/reinforcement, time availability, and organizational boundaries.
Keywords: intrapreneurship, innovation, leadership, motivation, work environment.

For more please open this linkPaper 7: Blendi Shima* Enxhi Alicka**


Author(s): Bundaleska Elena*, Trajkoska Sara*, Mileva Ivona*

* UniversityAmericanCollege Skopje, School of Business Economics and Management,III Makedonska
Brigada, 60, 1000 Skopje, North Macedonia
Corresponding author email address: [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.644


Marketing as an activity that marked the 21st century is a very important part of the business activities of any organization. Traditional and modern marketing are interconnected despite digitalization as a new process. A good marketing leader is the key to success in many large companies. Leadership is a very broad concept and there are different theories and styles of leadership. This paper focuses more specifically on female leadership styles in marketing, as a concept that is becoming more interesting to study and observe. The study provides an evidence that women leaders in the Republic of North Macedonia dominatly use a participative leadership style, which also means that besides the involvment of the employee in the decision-making process, they show respect, care and empathy for others. The study also shows that there is no differences in leadership styles among the genders, which supports the feminist idea of women being equal to men; thus breaking the business and leadership stereotypes in regards to the women being less valuable in the business environment.
Keywords: Leadership styles, Marketing, North Macedonia, Gender, Women

For more please open this linkPaper 8: Bundaleska Elena*, Trajkoska Sara*, Mileva Ivona*


Author(s): Dr. Miranda Harizaj*, Msc. Arli Minga**, Dr. Alfons Harizaj***

* Polytechnical Univistry of Tirana, Tirana, Albania [email protected]
** National Agency for Information Society,Tirana, Albania [email protected]
*** Canadian Institute of Technology, Rr: „Xhanfize KEKO“, Tirana, Albania [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2744

Natural Language Processing has gained a special importance and development in recent years, where the analysis of written texts through various techniques of “text mining” and the extraction of all their features is a prerequisite to be used and be further implemented for various purposes. In this paper it will be compared some of the most effective techniques and algorithms in terms of “text mining”, to predict the authorship of a written text in the Albanian language, using for training the model, a fund of articles written by some of the most well- known bloggers of Albanian journalism. When talking about finding the authorship of a text it must kept in mind many important elements such as: number of sentences, sentence structure, number of words in a sentence, repetition of the same word, length of words used, frequency of the use of punctuation, literary figures used; elements which best display the unique narrative style for each author. This paper can serve as a good starting point to go further to its specific objective, predicting the authorship of an anonymous text, but also for other applications related to “text mining”, referring to the Albanian language.

For more please open this linkPaper 1: Dr. Miranda Harizaj*, Msc. Arli Minga**, Dr. Alfons Harizaj***


Author(s): Ph.D. Emilija Egger*, Ph.D. Ivona Mileva**, Jovana Saveva***

* Skopje Metropolitan College, Skopje, Blvd. 8-mi Septemvri 19a, Skopje, North Macedonia
[email protected]
** University American College Skopje, Blvd. Treta Makedonska Brigada, bb, Skopje North Macedonia
[email protected]
*** Skopje Metropolitan College, Skopje, Blvd. 8-mi Septemvri 19a, Skopje, North Macedonia
[email protected]

The trend of becoming entrepreneurs is increasing among young individuals. Based on research, different motivational factors are playing an important role in increasing the trend of entrepreneurship among young individuals. The entrepreneurial, work, social, individual, and economic core are some of the main motivational factors discussed in this paper. The study attempts to investigate the motivating factors of young students to start an entrepreneurial career by using a quantitative approach. The results of the study show that the role of motivational factors listed in a specific order is quite important in increasing the trend of becoming an entrepreneur among younger students.
Keywords: motivation, entrepreneurship, young students, factors

For more please open this linkPaper 2: Ph.D. Emilija Egger, Ph.D. Ivona Mileva, Jovana Saveva


Author(s): Dr. Enriko Ceko*
* Head of Business Administration and Information technology
Canadian Institute of Technology
[email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2746

My goal in conducting this study was to evidence and show the importance of the innovation concept and the relations of this concept to quality and quality management, in a comparative analysis between Balkan countries under a worldwide perspective approach. Collecting data and information about innovation index worldwide, Balkan countries included, describing the newly introduced ISO family of standards for innovation, handling a descriptive statistic for innovation index, making a comparative analysis of this index between Balkan countries, as well as a comparison of Balkan countries with the rest of the world on this issue, was
the methodology of this research. Application of ISO standards generally and the application of the ISO family of standards for innovation helps companies to strengthen their commitment to their clients, improving innovative activities, processes and procedures, and economies of Balkan countries to achieve a competitive advantage, as a response to Crisis and Post-Crisis Period, was  the main recommendations of the research.
Keywords: Context-Free Languages, Pumping lemma, Intelligent systems, Machine/deep learning, Data sciences

For more please open this linkPaper 3: Dr. Enriko Ceko


Author(s): Prof. Dr. Ljupco Sotiroski*, Prof. Dr. Klodiana Gorica**

* International University Europa Prima Skopje, Full professor at the Faculty of Film Arts,
Institute for Audiovisual Studies and Digital Protection
** University of Tirana, Faculty of Economy, Tirana, Albania

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2747

For more please open this linkPaper 4: Prof. Dr. Ljupco Sotiroski, Prof. Dr. Klodiana Gorica


Author(s): MSc. Paula Mehmetukaj*, Dr. Oriola Musa**

* Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana, Albania
** Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana, Albania

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2748


Due to the increasing of environmental awareness, consumers nowadays tend to pay more attention to the safety of personal care items and products that claim to offer environmental benefits. Over the years, both consumers awareness and consumers attitudes towards sustainable or “green” brands have increased significantly.The purpose of this thesis is to affirm this conclusion reached by the authors of scientific articles for Albania as a case study. From the questionnaire conducted online with 268 participants, in the beginning of the analyses we concluded that Albanian consumers have information and knowledge regarding the term “green” products, also some of them are users of these products and prefer them compared to traditional products as a result of greater quality and bigger benefits. But by the end of the analysis, we saw that despite the qualities highlighted and pointed out by participating consumers, and the possible reasons for using green products, their behaviour does not comply with these thoughts of theirs. What is most important during this research is the low exposure of green products or brands in Albania, creating major constraints on finding and disposing of these products for the Albanian consumer.

Keywords: Green products, green consumption, green marketing, green shopping, social ethics, social dilemmas, consumer behaviour

For more please open this linkPaper 5: MSc. Paula Mehmetukaj, Dr. Oriola Musa


Author(s): PhD. Aleksandar Blazeski*

* Skopje Metropolitan College, Skopje, North Macedonia

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2749

Democratization has emerged as a need for the good of citizens, to improve the quality of life, the process of accession to communities (democratization of society, creating a democratic, accountable, transparent and accountable government) and to improve and maintain stable interethnic relations in the country. As in other segments, decentralization in education refers to the transfer of responsibilities from national to local level, thus placing primary and secondary education under the jurisdiction of municipalities. The decentralization process is changing the way schools are managed and managed where schools tend to become open learning centers, involving more entities, including parents and students, and local government officials, increasing cooperation with enterprises and NGOs such as and utilizing local resources in order to enrich the experience and raise the level of skills acquired. The research part is aimed at determining the effects of primary education management before and after the decentralization process. The research was conducted on a sample of respondents from primary school teachers, principals, ie deputy principals and professional associates from the pedagogical-psychological service in schools. A research questionnaire technique was used to conduct the research. The poll is anonymous and the questions are clearly worded. The obtained results from the research are processed quantitatively, and certain areas will be interpreted qualitatively.

Keywords: education, primary, decentralization, effects, management.

For more please open this linkPaper 6: PhD. Aleksandar Blazeski


Author(s): Brendon Pojani*, MSc. Isida Mansaku**

* Procredit Bank, Tirana, Albania
** Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana, Albania

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2750

The video game industry has evolved from having just a children-focused target market to a more sophisticated one with a widespread and mainstream audience with no age limitations. After the COVID-19 outbreak, it is mainly stated as one of the industries that faced little to no issues, so the main aim behind this research is to investigate how the giants of this industry confronted the financial challenges of pandemic. We conducted a comparative profitability, liquidity, asset and debt utilization ratio analysis relying on the annual reports of 2021 and 2020 (2020 and 2019 for Activision-Blizzard), published by three of the biggest video game development companies. The time frame was chosen to reflect the position of the companies before and after the first year of the pandemic. The results vary due to the companies’ business models. Based on these results, we tried to identify any possible changes and variations, assessing the financial performance and position of the companies. In the case of Activision-Blizzard, we mostly came up with increases in all of their major ratios, which derives from a successful business model they follow. In Electronic Arts’ case, we noticed an increase in revenue expenditure that led to a decrease in its profitability ratios. We also found out that the company has slight reduction in liquidity and asset utilization, but the results still indicate a good performance and do not reflect any serious predicament. While Konami, we saw a significant growth in their profitability and liquidity ratios, but on the other side there is a decrease in their total asset turnover and increase in the debt ratio. In overall, we can state that the companies managed to cope with pandemic and financial challenges during the first year and even to expand their presence in the video game industry, but not without having to face some difficulties.
Keywords: Video Game Industry, COVID 19 Pandemic, Electronic Arts, Konami, Activision-Blizzard, Ratio Analysis, Financial Position and Performance.

For more please open this linkPaper 7: Brendon Pojani, MSc. Isida Mansaku


Author(s): Majlinda Fetaji a , Bekim Fetaji b, Özcan Asilkan c

a South East European University, Faculty of Contemporary Science, Tetovo, Macedonia,
[email protected]
b Mother Teresa University, Faculty of Informatics, Skopje, Macedonia,
[email protected]
c Leuphana University Lüneburg, Institute of Information Systems, Lüneburg, Germany,
[email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2760

In this study, we investigated the pumping lemma for context-free languages and analyzed some case studies in terms of their efficiency. Pumping lemmas play an important role in formal language theory. Context-free languages (CFL) is the set of languages that can be defined by context-free grammars. Context-free grammars are used to define programming languages, natural language applications (such as grammar correctors), machine protocols and many others. The case studies are used to simplify the process analyses of the efficiency of pumping lemma for Context-Free Languages. To prove that a Language is Not Context-Free using pumping lemma for CFL, we created a guideline presented in the fourth section that contains a proposed algorithmic procedure. Pumping lemma for CFL is used to show the existence of non-context free languages. Insights and argumentations were provided in the end of the paper.

Keywords: Context-Free Languages, Pumping lemma, Intelligent systems, Machine/deep learning, Data sciences

For more please open this linkPaper 1: Majlinda Fetaji a , Bekim Fetaji b, Özcan Asilkan c


Author(s): Joel Murataj a , Prof. Dr. Eng. Abdulsalam Alkholidi b,c, Prof. Dr. Habib Hamam d,
PhD Afrim Alimeti e

a Software Engineering Department, Canadian Institute of Technology, Albania
b Software Engineering Department Canadian Institute of Technology, Albania
c Electrical Engineering Department Faculty of Engineering – Sana’a University – Yemen
d Département de Génie Électrique, Faculté D’Ingénierie, Université de Moncton, Canada
e Industrial Engineering Department, Canadian Institute of Technology, Albania

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2723

Deep Learning (DL) is a subfield of Machine Learning (ML) that deals with algorithms inspired by the structure and function of the brain. DL uses complex algorithms and deep neural nets to train a model. It consists of the learning of artificial neural networks that consider algorithms inspired by the human brain by learning how to use a large amount of data. It includes machine learning, where machines can learn by experience and get skills without human intervention. The importance of deep learning is the ability to process a large number of characteristics allowing deep and powerful learning when dealing with ambiguous data. This paper aims to study and analyze to be updated existing papers related to the deep learning field and introduce our contribution. An additional aim of this review paper is to concentrate on the self-driving cars case study and introduce the new approach with high performance.
Keywords: Neural Network, Architectures, Big Data, Machine Learning, Autonomous Driving

For more please open this linkPaper 2: Joel Murataj a , Prof. Dr. Eng. Abdulsalam Alkholidi b,c, Prof. Dr. Habib Hamam d, PhD Afrim Alimeti e


Author(s): Ahmet Ali Süzen a , Burhan Duman b

a Department of Information Security Technology, Isparta University of Applied Sciences,
Isparta 32200, Turkey
b Department of Computer Engineering, Isparta University of Applied Sciences,
Isparta 32200, Turkey

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2724

In this study a neural network model (XGB_CTD) that will prediction which type of bullying the users may expose to, through dataset gained by the cyberbullying scale applied to the young internet users is formulated. Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGboost) algorithm, one of the ensemble learning methods is used in this method. There while this model contains 13 input parameters taken from the scale, there exist one output parameter classified one of the 9 outputs. The reliability of the data set obtained through survey is confirmed by statistical methods. Data set has been fragmented with Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) which is one of fuzzy clustering algorithms. Hyper-parameters for the maximum efficiency of the model training have been defined as model, learning and boosting method. Independent variables in data set have been scaled through standard normalization. As a result, the model has yielded % 91,75 accuracy rate in prediction of the classification as 9 different cyberbullying types. The same data set has been trained by different machine learning algorithms. It is seen that the proposed model has reached the highest accuracy when compared to the conventional machine learning algorithms.
This study aims at prediction cyberbullying through the proposed model including different questions without claim by the young users as they were bullied. Similarly, type of the cyberbullying will also be able to be estimated by the help of internet using habits of the young users. Therefore, it is thought that the young can be prevented from experiencing psychological pressure or digital life fear.
Keywords: Classification, Cyberbullying, Ensemble Learning, XGBoost, FCM, Machine Learning

For more please open this linkPaper 3: Ahmet Ali Süzen a , Burhan Duman b


Author(s): Klevis Lika a , Evis Plaku b

a,b Canadian Institute of Technology, Xhanfize Keko Street, Nr. 12, Tirana, Albania

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2725


The ability to process language is a difficult task. A computer system that can extract meaningful information from raw text data is considered to be equipped with intelligent behaviour. Sentiment analysis is a form of information extraction of growing research and commercial interest, especially because of the exponential increase of data in recent years.
This paper presents a machine learning approach built upon Neural Networks that equips a computer system with the ability to learn how to detect sentiment in a given text and to correctly classify previously unencountered text with respect to predefined sentiment categories. The developed approach does not rely on any hard-coded parameters. Rather, a model is learned through a training procedure performed on raw data alone with the objective of searching to identify patterns and discovering feature predictors that allow the algorithm to classify text into positive, negative, or neutral sentiments, while additionally focusing on nuances such as humorous or sarcastic text.
Experimental validation shows promising results. The learning algorithm is fed with high-volume textual data extracted from the Twitter social media platform. The trained model is then tested on a separate dataset, previously unknown by the model. The classification algorithm is able to predict the sentiment associated with a given text with high accuracy.

Keywords: text-sentiment analysis, deep learning, machine learning, convolutional neural networks

For more please open this linkPaper 4: Klevis Lika a , Evis Plaku b


Author(s): PhD Besarta Tafa a , PhD(C) Gjergji Tafa b

a Faculty of Economy, Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana, Albania
b PhD student at Charisma University, UK

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2761

Capitalism is a very powerful regime nowadays. Capitalism regards capital as a main factor of production. It supports the capitalist to benefit from wealth accumulation without putting this capital at risk. The mechanism to do so is called interest. This results in the following consequence; Weak competitors who are not able to provide a capital compared to that of a big capitalist are excluded from the competition and put aside. So, the capital is of nature to influence the basic economic decisions like what and whom to produce.
At the state level, governments depend on the capital of capitalists to expend on development. The capital also influences policy making and election campaigns. In other words, the political and social life depends on the market which is in the hands of capitalists.
This article empathizes the problems that accompany the capitalism by conducting an analysis of the financial stability. To achieve this, there are used the profitability ratios for 20 financial institutions in times of different crises that have affected the financial market. This article concludes that; in the todays’ economic environment, which is ever changing, the capitalist system might be at risk. It needs either restructuring or reconceptualization in order for the economic system to perform accurately.

Keywords: Capitalism, Economic System, Financial Stability, Profitability Ratios

For more please open this linkPaper 5: PhD Besarta Tafa a , PhD(C) Gjergji Tafa b


Author(s): Enriko Ceko a

a Dr. Canadian Institute of Technology. Director Scientific Research Unit. Street Xhanfize Keko 12

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2728

Cybercrime and the phenomena accompanying, currently with international nature, targeting the main sectors of world economy, are main challenges facing individuals, families, societies and states, four main operators in the open market. An appropriate response to cybercrime, having a high and complete cyber security system, employing legal instruments, IT protocols and ISO standards related with this issue, is a priority.
Undertaking this research, a review of curricula and syllabuses of economic, law and IT faculties of public and private higher university institutions in Albania have been done, as well as discussing the issue with lecturers of Cyber Security, Cyber Law and Quality Management discplines on these HUI’s too.
Aims of this manuscript is evidencing the lack of scientific information about cyber security, cyber law and ISO standards for IT, Economy and Law faculty students in Albania.
The importance of this manuscript is related on improving the current situation of now day’s students, which don’t have skills, knowledge and competencies to enter in the labour market, when cyber security issues are the main risks of public and private sector operators.
This manuscript rises for the first time, awareness on offering a better curricula and syllabuses on the issue of cyber security in higher education institutions in Albania.
Keywords: cyber crime, ISO standards, legal instruments, higher education institutions, curricula, syllabus, international agenda, etc.

For more please open this linkPaper 6: Enriko Ceko a


Author(s): MSc Cansel Hilal Saygin a , PhD Jona Puci bpercentage

a Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana, Albania
b Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana, Albania

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2729

The banking system is one of the most important parts of the economy of a nation. It must be a well-developed and based in lawful rules in order to generate trust to the citizens. Based on the trust it raises, households interact in different ways; including having loans, depositing their savings, making transfers etc. The main purpose of this paper is to study the impact of various factors on the average rate of the savings that citizens deposit on the commercial banks, known as deposit rate for Western Balkan countries involving Albania, Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, North Macedonia and Montenegro, which have almost similar historical developments and economic trends during the decades. Here we will carefully study the impact of three different aspects including macroeconomic, bank specific and demographic factors. To achieve this objective, an empirical study is done where the data set is defined as panel data. The model includes five independent variables; population growth, inflation rate, non-performing loans, liquidity ratio and GDP per capita. The data is taken for the 6 countries mentioned for the years starting from 2010 to 2017. The results of this paper conclude that population growth, GDP per capita and liquidity rate are the main determinants of the dependent variable, which is deposit rate. In addition, the analysis points out that the variable with the highest impact on the dependent variable is population growth. In addition, all of the variables have a direct relationship with deposit rate, except liquidity rate which has a negative impact. Moreover, non-performing loans and inflation rate have no effect on deposit rate.

Keywords: Western Balkans, deposit rate, panel data, GDP per capita, liquidity and population growth.

For more please open this linkPaper 7: MSc Cansel Hilal Saygin a , PhD Jona Puci b


Author(s): MSc. Xhesika Pjetra a , PhD Edmira Cakrani b
a Student, Faculty of Economy, Canadian Institute of Technology, [email protected]
b Head of Business Administration Department, Canadian Institute of Technology, [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i2.2734

The presence of a high level of nonperforming loans has been a growing concern in the world. This problem has been present in Albania, as well, which is one of the countries with the highest level of nonperforming loans in the region. Nonperforming loans hamper economic growth and constrain the monetary policy transmission mechanism. This paper examines the role of nonperforming loans in Albania by evaluating its level throughout the years and analyzing the ways in which these trends have shaped the credit market developments in Albania in terms of lending by economic sector and geographical position. This study strives to examine nonperforming loans as a result of other macroeconomic factors: GDP, remittances and inflation. The methodology involves time series analysis, which is used to identify the possible association between non-performing loans and macroeconomic variables. Multiple regression is used as a model to identify any relationship among them. The period covered is from 2014 to 2020, and it uses quarterly data. The paper uses secondary data, obtained from the Bank of Albania, United Nations database, UNECE, INSTAT, World Bank. The results show that nonperforming loans and these variables are correlated in the long-run.
Keywords: nonperforming loans, credit market developments, inflation, GDP, remittances, Albania, multiple regression model, time series analysis

For more please open this linkPaper 1: Xhesika Pjetri, Edmira Cakrani


Author(s): PhD. Blerta Nazarko a , PhD. Alfons Harizaj b , Msc. Klea Çapari c , Msc. Anxhela Baraj d
b Head of IE Department, Lecturer, Canadian Institute of Technology, [email protected]
a Lecturer, Faculty of Engineering, Canadian Institute of Technology, [email protected]
c Lecturer, Faculty of Engineering, Canadian Institute of Technology, [email protected]
d Lecturer, Faculty of Engineering, Canadian Institute of Technology, [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i2.2735

The psychological burden, generated “in excess” and experienced in perceptions, deemed as interdependent by the Covid-19 conditions, is a potential factor that affects the students’ life and calls for investigation and study. The enforced restrictions to stop Covid-19 infection spread made obligatory the transfer of teaching and learning in the online format. Although it is difficult to inspect anxiety and psychological stress, yet, using specifically built questionnaires based on the theoretical and scientific guidance and in close consultation with the specialists, the present research study is developed. The developed questionnaire was used with the statistical tests applications. It was specified in separate sections that served to clearly defined purposes and hypothesis. The sample used (n=130) was randomly and not obligatorily selected from the Bachelor cycle students of the “Canadian Institute of Technology” University College population. They responded confidentially and the responses were confidentially processed. 30.8% of the selected sample were females and 69.2% were males. The generated anxiety and stress were studied for their impact in the academic achievements and in stimulating the learning abilities and interests. A separate section evaluated the motivating perception as regards the motivating style in knowledge transfer. This study intends to find the most effective forms of transferring and evaluating knowledge. In addition, the study lays out the need for analysis in facing the challenges the online teaching and learning processes present in the Covid-19 conditions in order to identify the positive experiences to be brought forward in continuation.
Keywords: Covid 19,psychological burden, motivating style in knowledge transfer, academic achievement, statistical tests

For more please open this linkPaper 2: PhD. Blerta Nazarko, PhD. Alfons Harizaj, Msc. Klea Çapari, Msc. Anxhela Baraj


Author(s): c.e.s., Associate Professor Polina V. Smirnova a , Senior Lecturer Elena D. Shtrafina b
b Leonov Moscow Region University Of Technology (Unitech), Russia
a Leonov Moscow Region University Of Technology (Unitech), Russia , [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i2.2736

The article discusses the issues of assessing the effectiveness of the use of information technologies, the vector of which is set by the Solow paradox. It is proposed to look for a solution to the paradox in the accumulated level of business informationisation, as well as in a change in the methodological approach to assessing the dynamics of labor productivity as a result of business digitalization
Keywords: E-business, digital enterprise, business digitalization index, business informatics.

For more please open this linkPaper 3: c.e.s., Associate Professor Polina V. Smirnova, Senior Lecturer Elena D. Shtrafina


Author(s): Grigorina Boce a , Alma Hyra b , Frida Zisko c
a Mediterranean University of Albania, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Department of Informatics and Scientific Education, [email protected]
b Mediterranean University of Albania, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Department of Informatics and Scientific Education, [email protected]
c Mediterranean University of Albania, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Department of Informatics and Scientific Education, [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i2.2737

Gaining good knowledge in computer science before university education is considered a necessity in the most developed countries of the world. Currently, in our country, the education of ICT in pre- university studies begins from the fourth grade of primary education. How interested are students in acquiring this knowledge? Do they have difficulty in gaining programming comprehension? Would the use of robotics help in their motivation and gaining good knowledge in the field of programming? When applied to education, robotics and simulators can change the way students learn and ultimately create a more well-informed and systematic student.
Keywords: robotics, programming, Arduino, motivation, education, knowledge, computer sciences, development, simulation.

For more please open this linkPaper 4: Grigorina Boce, Alma Hyra, Frida Zisko


Author(s): Gledis Toçila a
a Student, Faculty of Engineering, Canadian Institute of Technology, [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i2.2738

This research paper provides a survey which addresses factors that make a significant impact on customer online shopping process and the assessment of their importance during this process. It is focused on five different sections consisting of demographics, security, time saving, product quality, website features and customer service. The Albanian case is interesting to study because it has grown into giant leaps since 2020, and a slight amount of scientific studies are publicly available about it. As a result, a better understanding of Albanian customers attitude towards online shopping is likely to be convenient for monitoring upcoming problems and concerns. The motivation behind this study arises from the risk perception as well as speculations that inevitably exist among consumers regarding the significance of the influence of decisive factors on the shopping online process in Albania. The purpose of this scientific study is to appropriately investigate how Albanian consumers’ point of view towards products’ quality, website features, customer service as well as their security perception have a considerable effect on their online purchases. Data were collected via self-administered questionnaire which contains 26 questions split in 6 sections and it was answered by 206 Albanians. One-way ANOVA were utilized to evaluate the difference between independent or explanatory variables and dependent variable such as customers’ reaction towards online shopping. Further scientific study should be mainly focused on exploring more factors impacting consumers’ reaction towards e-commerce purchases through online shopping as well as assessing their importance in this process.
Keywords: online shopping, demographics, security, time saving, product quality, website features, customer service.

For more please open this linkPaper 5: Gledis Toçila


Author(s): PhD. Rezart Dibra a
a Lecturer, University College of Business, [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i2.2739

The use of behavioral science in government and policy and regulation has been gaining popularity and momentum over the last five to ten years. Applications have historically been related to individual behavior – either individuals working within government or citizens themselves. However, there is growing interest among governments and policy institutions to utilize behavioral science to enhance organizational behavior – from government institutions themselves to external organizations that interact with and are regulated by governments. Organizational Behavior is the identification, analyzing and application of knowledge about how individuals and groups act in organizations. It interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the person, group, organization, and whole social system. Objective of it is to build better relationships by achieving people objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives. It encompasses a wide range of areas, such as human behavior, Training and development, change management, leadership, teams, Group behavior etc. In the study of organizational behavior and diversity, the use of models, theories, and past experience are each helpful in gaining a complete understanding. Individuals within an organization behave as they do as a result of the context in which they are immersed. This short article seeks to examine this context in order to further the cause of helping managers deal with issues in their organizations from a standpoint of knowledge and understanding, rather than guesswork and outdated methods. First, the organization as a system will be discussed, including its interdependence upon other systems. Next, the importance of relationships as a vital part of the operation of organizations will be mentioned. Then, the management of diversity will be outlined, leading to a discussion of the importance of culture in influencing values. This paper is a theoretical paper with some concept in the behavior organizational as a important part of management.
Keywords: human behavior, organizational structure, individuals behavior etc.

For more please open this linkPaper 6: Rezart Dibra


Author(s): Artemenko E.A. a Gavrilova T.V b
a Student, Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology (UNITECH), Russia, [email protected]
b Senior Lecturer, Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology (UNITECH), Russia

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i2.2740

This article deals with the basic concepts of this topic, illustrating the need for organizations to introduce heat maps as a means to optimize marketing decisions. The application of this resource in various areas of the organization’s activities are studied in detail, as well as the options for using heat maps to study the desires and preferences of the consumer. The article also provides an analysis of correct and incorrect utilization of heat maps, and how their data should be interpreted to maximize website effectiveness.
Keywords: neuromarketing, marketing, heat maps, consumer behavior.
JEL: M31, M370, M300.

For more please open this linkPaper 7: Artemenko E.A, Gavrilova T.V


Author(s): Dr. Arbresh Raveni a
a Lecturer, Faculty of Social Sciences, “Mother Teresa” University-Skopje,
[email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i2.2741

The aim of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of fiscal policy as a means of influencing output in North Macedonia. We apply a VEC model, and use quarterly data for the period 2000q1-2019q4. Our findings suggest that the possibility of fiscal policy to be used as a short-term stabilization tool was limited by the turbulent early phase of transition and several IMF arrangements; the exchange rate peg; and the scarcity of financial resources. The results of the baseline model suggest that a government spending
shock is more effective as a stabilization fiscal tool in Macedonia, compared to a tax shock, although fiscal multipliers smaller than one suggest that the effectiveness of fiscal policy in boosting output is limited. The findings confirm the importance of structural characteristics, suggesting that not accounting for monetary policy reaction and debt dynamics will result in an overstatement of fiscal multipliers. In particular, the results suggest that the “crowding out” effect of fiscal policy due to interest rate pressure
is absent and that monetary policy is accommodating an expansionary fiscal policy. The results of our investigation suggest that an increase in government expenditures will induce a significant increase in taxes. Moreover, although an increase in spending/taxes will result in a short-lived increase/decrease in public debt, as a priori expected, we find a long-equilibrium relationship between government spending and taxation suggesting that debt sustainability is not an issue in the case of Macedonia.

Keywords: fiscal policy, fiscal multipliers, government spending, taxation, North Macedonia.

For more please open this linkPaper 8: Dr. Arbresh Raveni


Habib Hamam
Université de Moncton, Nouveau-Brunswick, Canada
Research field
Physics with focus on Telecommunications, Electrical and Communications Engineer, Engineering
[email protected]

Abstract: Geometrical optics offers the formalism of compound systems by using for instance the Gauss’ method. This formalism notably simplifies the analysis of image formation. Since this theory does not take into account the wave character of light, it is desirable to extend the formalism of compound systems to scalar theory of diffraction which offers a more accurate tool of analysis. This paper treats this extension and shows its importance. For illustration, the system of human eye is considered. The analysis is simplified by using a lenses-based model of the Fresnel transform.
Keywords: geometrical optics, scalar theory of diffraction, Fresnel transform, compound systems.

For more please open this link: Paper 1: Habib Hamam


Erjona Deshati
Lecturer and Researcher, Canadian Institute of Technology (CIT), Tirana, Albania
Research field
Business Management, Business Strategy, Marketing, Leadership
[email protected]

Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate what makes an effective leader as perceived in private universities in Albania. Interviews were carried out through administration of a questionnaire of forty-seven participants in the selected university. At the conclusion of each questionnaire, the participants were asked to highlight what makes an effective leader as per their perception of what a leader is in the institution. The findings revealed that a trustworthy leader and who exhibits a high level of integrity makes an effective leader. Additionally, it is their role to provide direction for the institution, primarily for the leaders at the executive level that is involved in policy administration and adoption.
Keywords: Leader, Higher Education, effective leadership

For more please open this linkPaper 2: Erjona Deshati


Albana Demi (Mosho)
Lecturer and Researcher at Alexander Moisiu University of Durrës, Albania
Research field
Designing tax system and fiscal policies, Standards of accounting and accounting reports
in PPPs and management
[email protected]
Miljana Xhakolli
Tirana International Airport (TIA).
Research field
Public politics, Human rights

Abstract: This research paper aimed to review the main social indicator, which is used to assess poverty and quality of life, as well as to calculate minimum wages, minimum pensions and basic social payments. The traditional way of measuring poverty is based on income. A family is considered poor when its income falls below the minimum level needed to meet the basic needs of its members. In the written and electronic literature this level is usually called the subsistence level or the poverty line. Currently in our country, there is a lack of official data regarding the vital minimum indicator. In this way, Albania is the only one among the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, without an official indicator of the defined subsistence minimum, which means that our country currently lacks the basic level of poverty measurement. The International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Bank, the IMF, the Trade Unions, the People’s Advocate, and the Albanian Parliament have from time to time addressed suggestions to the government for setting the official minimum wage indicator. We believe that from this point of view, this study can also serve to revise economic growth strategies and reduce poverty. The living wage indicator is also used in other studies, to be compared with salaries, pensions, etc., but also with the total income of employees on the basis of family budgets. The study will serve to compare the official minimum living wage for an employee with the minimum wage and the size of pensions, social assistance, unemployment benefits, etc. As it is known, in Albania, the level of pensions is determined by law, while the level of the minimum wage, the amount in value of economic assistance, payment of unemployment and disability payment are determined by a Decision of the Council of Ministers. None of these poverty indicators is directly based on the vital minimum indicator.
Keywords: Women, labor market, gender, economy, inequality, Poverty, wage, pension.

For more please open this linkPaper 3: Albana Demi (Mosho), Miljana Xhakolli


Gjergji Shqau
University “Aleksander Xhuvani”, Elbasan, Albania
Research field
Organizational Behavior, Leadership, Business Communication, Consumer Behavior
[email protected]
Vaso Qano
Vice Rector, Faculty of Economy, Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana, Albania
Research field
Education, Teaching Physics, Physics and Astronomy books for high schools
Elda Shqau (Sulkja)
Regional Directorate of Health Elbasan City
Research field

Abstract: Effective management of queues can significantly improve the performance of the organization in general or the unit where it applies in particular. Effective management of queues is most needed when the service is face to face, i.e. “tangible”, visible and that actually happens in a certain unit. This work aims at identifying the role of several factors (skills, technology, etc.) in the queuing model. The focus of selective surveillance is on all those organizations that have service systems. Service time in the system depends not only on the management of the model but also on some factors which if evaluated (taken into consideration) can significantly improve service results. After a detailed review of the literature, we created the possibility of designing the most effective techniques and methods for gathering information, which was then processed with various computer programs. The proposed model as well as the decision tree is the main results of the presents work. The study has managed to achieve its purpose, as well as to give at the end some recommendations for all those service systems where the queue is applied.
Keywords: system, waiting, queuing, time, service, customer.

For more please open this linkPaper 4: Gjergji Shqau, Vaso Qano, Elda Shqau (Sulkja)


Besarta Tafa
Faculty of Economy, Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana, Albania
Research field
Finance, Accounting, Banking, Financial Institutions, Risk Management, Islamic Finance
[email protected]
Gjergji Tafa
Charisma University, UK
Research field
Public Finance, Computerized Accounting, Fiscal policy, Monetary policy

Abstract: The global pandemic of Covid-19, being an unpredicted event, has caused a collapse in the entire world economy. Different countries have taken different approaches to deal with the economic problems derived from it. This paper aims to make an analysis of the economic and financial developments of the USA by figuring out the condition before and after the pandemic. An important stress will be put on the monetary policy followed by the government of the USA. For a good analysis, a comparison between economic indicators and their behavior, before and after the pandemic, will be done. It will be discussed about the economic activity, the labor market, inflation and the economic and financial stability. These unusual conditions have their effect also in the financial market. The credit quality of firms as well as the performance of financial institutions is mostly affected. The yields on securities and the spread of yields of bonds in comparison with treasury bills is also an important indicator to be studied.

Given the problematic situation the government of the USA tried to influence through the monetary and the fiscal policy. The increase on the money supply by keeping the FED interest rates near to zero has been one of the measures for recovering the economy. Another important measure to address the problem has been the safeguarding of the market functioning. On the other hand, the help of the government by the fiscal policy has been immediate, even though it is expected to increase the government outlays. The methodology used by this paper will be a theoretical comparison of economic development before and after the pandemic, based on row data generated by the reports of Federal Reserves. Statistical data will also be used in order to support the analysis. It concludes that the pandemic has affected the entire world, not only from the health viewpoint bat economically as well. The USA, as the leading economy in the world faced the challenge of finding the most appropriate measures to recover from the downturn. The effects of its policies will continue in the long run and there is needed some time to overcome them.
Keywords: Covid-19pandemic, economic and financial developments, monetary and fiscal policy, crisis, recovery

For more please open this link: Paper 5: Besarta Tafa, Gjergji Tafa


Pamela Sida
Student, Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana, Albania
Research field
Strategy, Management
[email protected]

Abstract: Unemployment has been accepted as a worrying problem for all society since the beginning of transition. The market is full of different obstacles and barriers. Searching for a job is now a job itself. Making a plan to find a job requires active and continuous work, while staying passive is not an option. The aim of this study is to show the impact that the lack of ‘searching for a job’ strategy has on being unemployed. The research method used is the quantitative one. The data collection method is an administrated in group questionnaire. The study consists of a comparison between two age groups, concretely between 50 youngsters, aged 18-23, and 50 other youngsters, aged 24-29. From the data analysis it resulted that: (a) the sample of this study is passive and doesn’t pay the needed importance and time to search for a job (b) young people have a noted lack of information for the chances that the market offers (c) they don’t have a ‘searching for a job’ strategy and this leads to unemployment.
Keywords: Youth, ‘searching for a job’ strategy, unemployment, unemployed.

For more please open this linkPaper 6: Pamela Sida


Lule Basha1, Llukan Puka2, 3
1, 2 Department of Applied Mathematics,
1, 2 Faculty of Natural Science, University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania
3 Canadian Institute of Technology, St. Andon Zako Çajupi, Zayed Center, Tirana 100, Albania
E-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]

There are several statistical methods for time to event analysis, among which is the Cox proportional hazards model, that is most commonly used. In this model, the effect of the covariates is assumed to act multiplicatively on the baseline hazard rate and the ratio of the hazards is constant over survival time. However, when the proportionality assumption for the Cox proportional hazards model is not satisfied, an additive hazard regression model may be more appropriate. In this study, we give an overview of this approach and then apply Aalen’s additive hazard regression model to a data set which contain the job tenure for Albanian employees and variables that are thought of as important factors in the job tenure. The Aalen model allows for time-varying covariate effects and is used to assess the impact that age of the employee, the age at which he started the job, salary, gender, position and years of work in front of the current position may have in job termination.
Keywords: Job tenure, Survival analysis, Cox proportional hazard model, Aalen’s additive hazard regression model.

For more please open this linkPaper 1: Lule Basha, Llukan Puka


Habib Hamam
Faculty of Engineering, University of Moncton, NB, E1A 3E9, Canada
[email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2688

A novel method, for designing pantographs, is presented. An iterative algorithm is used to design a distribution of bright and dark spots to be embedded in the original document. This distribution should make the word “void”, “invalid”, or “copy” visible on the photocopy or the scanned version of the original document. We used an iterative algorithm to optimize the pantograph. We can start from a random distribution, or from a deterministic distribution based on Dirac pulses properties.
Keywords: Pantographs, Protection of Documents, Fourier Optics.

For more please open this linkPaper 2: Habib Hamam


Silva Bashllari1, Klea Korbi1, Alba Skëndaj2, Evis Plaku1, 3
1 Canadian Institute of Technology, St. Andon Zako Çajupi, Zayed Center, Tirana 100, Albania
2 Universiteti Metropolitan Tirana, St. Pjeter Budi Tiranë, 1000, Albania
3 E-mail address: [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2689

The traditional classroom environment is gradually losing its monopoly as the sole setting of learning. Digital learning is becoming an attractive model across the higher education spectrum as new innovative information technologies have become widely available. Online learning is used as a tool that improves learning performance while combating the reduction in resources. This work presents a novel study focusing on estimating the efficiency of online learning in comparison to traditional learning for computer related fields in education institutions in Albania. A survey is conducted to estimate the impact that the learning modality has on students enrolled in computer
technology related fields. The study focuses on measuring the role that intrinsic factors, teaching practices, learning intentions and programming expertise have on the perceived usefulness and the efficacy of online learning. Measuring the role and effect of the learning modality will be important to estimating whether students and higher level education institutions are ready to shift towards online learning, or to integrate it into the current traditional framework. The results of our study are useful to have a better understanding of the benefits of online learning alongside with the challenges that need to be addressed in order to improve the teaching experience and outcomes.
Keywords: Online learning, traditional learning, course delivery methodology, blended learning, computer-related fields.

For more please open this linkPaper 3: Silva Bashllari, Klea Korbi, Alba Skëndaj, Evis Plaku


Klaudio Fifo
Canadian Institute of Technology, St. Andon Zako Çajupi, Zayed Center, Tirana 100, Albania
E-mail address: [email protected]

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2710

Merger and Acquisition decisions are about timing, opportunity, and decision. In the business world, these three words are partially influenced by the strength of the stock market. The timing is when the stock market is highly valued which results in high stock valuation, after that is the opportunity which means to find a target or if an existing target has lower stock valuation and finally comes the decision to make whether to use cash or equity for the transaction. Since companies can use its stock as leverage to
acquire companies, a highly valued market gives the companies the resource with which to make purchases. Therefore, the question arises whether the stock market influences the decision for companies to engage in M&A transactions. This question is addressed in this study using a relatively large panel data of M&A activity for the period 2008-2017. The econometric tool used in this study is regression analysis. The measurement that this study used to value the stock market is by measuring the stock market capitalization to GDP ratio of a country. The results displayed that the stock market to GDP ratio is statistically significant at 5% risk on the M&A activity and with a 1% increase in the stock market we expect a 0.1729% increase in the M&A activity. Additionally, the paper suggests the development of a regression model that can measure the FDI inflows in Albania, and this is achieved by adjusting the regression model variables in order to become more suitable for its economy.
Keywords: Mergers & Acquisitions volume, market value, developing markets, emerging markets, Albanian economy.

For more please open this linkPaper 4: Klaudio Fifo


Klea Cani, Brendon Pojani.
Tirana, Albania.

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2713

Living in the era of globalization made the spread of the virus to affect the entire world’s economy. The stock market plays a huge role in the well-going of the economy and for this reason the changes that have happened due the pandemic affected on everyone’s lives. Stock market is a perfect investment for all because saving in the stock market is the safest way to produce returns over time that can surpass inflation and now it is being affected by the virus. It is a fact that the stock market and the economy are related together. Many industries have been badly hit by the virus but also some other companies have had major benefits and for this reason the financial market changed directly in an unexpected way. So the market itself reacts to these changes and also should continue to deal with problems that have existed in it before the virus. Many of the problems surfacing now are actually derived from the great crisis that happened in 2008. Recession might happen if the situation goes on for too long but there are facts that also throw this down.
Keywords: Covid-19, Stocks, Epidemic, Economy, Industry, Impact.

For more please open this linkPaper 5: Klea Cani, Brendon Pojani


Prof. Assoc. Dr. Gjergji Shqau
Department of Business Administration Faculty of Economics, “Aleksandër Xhuvani” University, Elbasan, Albania

DOI: 10.59380/crj.v1i1.2714

This article aims to study the behavior of political and organizational leaders as well as identify common areas and differences between them. Four objectives have been set for this and it is thought that the methodology used will be as effective as possible in achieving the goal and objectives. Organizational leadership has been studied in companies with experience and expertise, with the results of the work of leaders, while political leadership is mainly focused on the behavior of political leaders during their tenure. Organizational and political leaders have been studied not only currently but mainly in the past. This constitutes a difficulty in reaching accurate conclusions, but not an inability to observe leadership behaviors and traits. Various research techniques and methods have been used to gather information, including data processing. At the end of the article are given the conclusions, the conclusions and some recommendations for both types of leaders.
Keywords: leadership, organizational, politic, characteristics, behaviors, features.

For more please open this linkPaper 6: Gjergji Shqau

Geometric progression as a solution to the extremum problem

Areshev Dmitry a ,  Samarova Svetlana b
a State Budgetary Higher Educational Institution Moscow Region                                                                                                                                                                                                                   «University of Technology» (UNITECH), Korolev city, Moscow region, 141070, Russia
b Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University),                                                                                                                                                                                                                Dolgoprudny city, Moscow region, 141701, Russia

The article is devoted to formulation and solving a problem of finding extremums of multivariable special functions. We will demonstrate that the solution of the problem is geometric progression.
Keywords: multivariable function, extremum, geometric progression.

For more please open this linkPaper 1: Areshev Dmitry, Samarova Svetlana

Performance Study of an Improved Version of Li-Fi and Wi-Fi Networks

Abdulsalam Alkholidi, Sondos Al-shami, Aisha Al-aghbary, and Habib Hamam, Member, IEEE

With the increasing demand and need for telecommunication technologies, wireless communication has become a heavily useful and widely popular utility. Capacity, availability, efficiency, and security are issues generally linked to wireless communications, more specifically Wi-Fi systems. Yet we can exploit billions of light bulbs, which we use anywhere and everywhere on a daily basis and of which the infrastructure is already part of our ordinary life. This study focuses on Li-Fi theory and practices. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how these light sources can be used as a transmitter or, to be more precise, as an access point. This idea was proposed for the first time by Prof. Harald Hass in Global TED (2011). During the last two years, Li-Fi technology has been enhanced and improved by many professional and international studies. As new wireless communication technology develops to use LED, the efficiency, availability, security, and safety of light fidelity transform today’s telecommunication into tomorrow’s visible light communication.
Keywords: BER, FDMA, Li-Fi, NOMA, OOK modulation, Visible Light Communications (VLC), and Wi-Fi.

For more please open this linkPaper 2: Abdulsalam Alkholidi, Sondos-Al-shami, Aisha-Al-aghbary, Habib Hamam

Impact of Culture on Organizational Behavior and Different Managerial Indicators: Case of SMEs in Albania

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Gjergji Shqau a; Assoc. Prof. Dr. Vaso Qano b; MSc. Elda Shqau c
a Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics, “Aleksandër Xhuvani” University, Elbasan, Albania
b Lecturer, Faculty of Economy, Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana, Albania
c Department of HRPR, Regional District Public Health, Elbasan

Culture is one of the most important elements of an organization’s success. Some scholars consider culture to be an important part of the environment of the organization; some parallel it with the environment, while other scholars regard it as a separate part and as an important variable beside of other environmental factors. In all cases, culture is considered to have an impact on different technical-financial indicators but also on other organization’s indicators. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the role of culture, the impact it has on different parts of the organization and its impact in macro and micro managerial indicators. Continuous improvement of culture can significantly increase the effectiveness and results of work. On the basis of the main goal, hypotheses have been raised about the relationship between types of culture and the impact on different indicators, socialization and level of cultures on indicators such as productivity, performance, satisfaction, turnovers, shortages, motivation, etc.
Using a Likert method and a logical factorial model, a summary table has been compiled that links qualitative and quantitative indicators. Qualitative indicators are classified into two sections on the types of culture and socialization. The second section divides culture into three levels according to Shein’s study. Questionnaire data has been processed in all cases, and with five degrees of evaluation achieved in different quantitative evaluation indicators, which give meaning to qualitative indicators. In cases where the indicators are larger than the average or more than four, the link to the influence of culture is considered strong.
At the end of this paper, conclusions and suggestions are given for the importance that should be attached to culture in general and to all cultures with a positive impact on organizational behavior and managerial indicators. If forms of negative culture “thrive” in organizations, better management is recommended.
Keywords: Organizational Behavior; Managerial Indicators; SMEs; Culture.

For more please open this linkPaper 3: Gjergji Shqau, Vaso Qano, Elda Shqau

The impact of Human Resource policies and practices on employee outcomes: A Case of Kosovo

Kaltrina Kajtazi
City college, the International Faculty of the University of Sheffield, Thessaloniki, Greece

Considering the need of Kosovo for Human Resources field, especially the need for conducting a research in large companies, encouraged this research to be started. The three participant companies in this research were Telecom of Kosovo, Kosovo Energy Corporation and Bank for business. Is expressed much need to explore some of the most important policies and practices across companies, such as recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation and benefits as well as perceived organizational support. And on the other hand, observing the impact they have on employees, ranging from job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover. Many researches that have been accomplished leave behind a large number of gaps waiting to be met by others and the gaps that have been identified from the previous studies related to this topic are filled by this research. In this research the most fitted methodology approach seemed to be triangulation, where are distributed 50 questionnaires to the employees of the respondent companies and 20 interviews have been held with the HR Managers. So, based on the analyses that have been done, the objectives of this paper have been achieved and the questions have been answered. In many parts of findings are witnessed some strong and significant correlations between the outcomes of the employees and the implementation of HR policies. In addition, the answers of employees differ from the answers of HR policies, since the latter have responded positively about the execution of the practices in question.
The academic contribution of this study is witnessed related to the gaps derived by the previous studies which this research has filled and the practitioner contribution of it is linked with the help that this research gives to the participant companies in terms of the crafting policies and executing practices in their business environment. The most important recommendation is that the HR managers should improve their executing process of these policies and practices. However, based on the limitations of this research are flown the need for further studies to be filled by next researches, such as the need to conduct this issue in manufacturing and service firms and to compare the findings between the two sectors.
Keywords: HR policies and practices, recruitment and selection, training and development, compensations and benefits, organizational support, employees’ outcomes, job satisfaction, commitment, turnover.

For more please open this linkPaper 4: Kaltrina Kajtazi