Author(s): MSc. Xhesika Pjetra a , PhD Edmira Cakrani b
a Student, Faculty of Economy, Canadian Institute of Technology,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
b Head of Business Administration Department, Canadian Institute of Technology,


The presence of a high level of nonperforming loans has been a growing concern in the world. This problem has been present in Albania, as well, which is one of the countries with the highest level of nonperforming loans in the region. Nonperforming loans hamper economic growth and constrain the monetary policy transmission mechanism. This paper examines the role of nonperforming loans in Albania by evaluating its level throughout the years and analyzing the ways in which these trends have shaped the credit market developments in Albania in terms of lending by economic sector and geographical position. This study strives to examine nonperforming loans as a result of other macroeconomic factors: GDP, remittances and inflation. The methodology involves time series analysis, which is used to identify the possible association between non-performing loans and macroeconomic variables. Multiple regression is used as a model to identify any relationship among them. The period covered is from 2014 to 2020, and it uses quarterly data. The paper uses secondary data, obtained from the Bank of Albania, United Nations database, UNECE, INSTAT, World Bank. The results show that nonperforming loans and these variables are correlated in the long-run.
Keywords: nonperforming loans, credit market developments, inflation, GDP, remittances, Albania, multiple regression model, time series analysis

For more please open this linkPaper 1: Xhesika Pjetri, Edmira Cakrani




Author(s): PhD. Blerta Nazarko a , PhD. Alfons Harizaj b , Msc. Klea Çapari c , Msc. Anxhela Baraj d
b Head of IE Department, Lecturer, Canadian Institute of Technology,
a Lecturer, Faculty of Engineering, Canadian Institute of Technology,
c Lecturer, Faculty of Engineering, Canadian Institute of Technology,
d Lecturer, Faculty of Engineering, Canadian Institute of Technology,


The psychological burden, generated “in excess” and experienced in perceptions, deemed as interdependent by the Covid-19 conditions, is a potential factor that affects the students’ life and calls for investigation and study. The enforced restrictions to stop Covid-19 infection spread made obligatory the transfer of teaching and learning in the online format. Although it is difficult to inspect anxiety and psychological stress, yet, using specifically built questionnaires based on the theoretical and scientific guidance and in close consultation with the specialists, the present research study is developed. The developed questionnaire was used with the statistical tests applications. It was specified in separate sections that served to clearly defined purposes and hypothesis. The sample used (n=130) was randomly and not obligatorily selected from the Bachelor cycle students of the “Canadian Institute of Technology” University College population. They responded confidentially and the responses were confidentially processed. 30.8% of the selected sample were females and 69.2% were males. The generated anxiety and stress were studied for their impact in the academic achievements and in stimulating the learning abilities and interests. A separate section evaluated the motivating perception as regards the motivating style in knowledge transfer. This study intends to find the most effective forms of transferring and evaluating knowledge. In addition, the study lays out the need for analysis in facing the challenges the online teaching and learning processes present in the Covid-19 conditions in order to identify the positive experiences to be brought forward in continuation.
Keywords: Covid 19,psychological burden, motivating style in knowledge transfer, academic achievement, statistical tests

For more please open this linkPaper 2: PhD. Blerta Nazarko, PhD. Alfons Harizaj, Msc. Klea Çapari, Msc. Anxhela Baraj




Author(s): c.e.s., Associate Professor Polina V. Smirnova a , Senior Lecturer Elena D. Shtrafina b
b Leonov Moscow Region University Of Technology (Unitech), Russia
a Leonov Moscow Region University Of Technology (Unitech), Russia ,


The article discusses the issues of assessing the effectiveness of the use of information technologies, the vector of which is set by the Solow paradox. It is proposed to look for a solution to the paradox in the accumulated level of business informationisation, as well as in a change in the methodological approach to assessing the dynamics of labor productivity as a result of business digitalization
Keywords: E-business, digital enterprise, business digitalization index, business informatics.

For more please open this linkPaper 3: c.e.s., Associate Professor Polina V. Smirnova, Senior Lecturer Elena D. Shtrafina




Author(s): Grigorina Boce a , Alma Hyra b , Frida Zisko c
a Mediterranean University of Albania, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Department of Informatics and Scientific Education,
b Mediterranean University of Albania, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Department of Informatics and Scientific Education,
c Mediterranean University of Albania, Faculty of Economic Sciences, Department of Informatics and Scientific Education,


Gaining good knowledge in computer science before university education is considered a necessity in the most developed countries of the world. Currently, in our country, the education of ICT in pre- university studies begins from the fourth grade of primary education. How interested are students in acquiring this knowledge? Do they have difficulty in gaining programming comprehension? Would the use of robotics help in their motivation and gaining good knowledge in the field of programming? When applied to education, robotics and simulators can change the way students learn and ultimately create a more well-informed and systematic student.
Keywords: robotics, programming, Arduino, motivation, education, knowledge, computer sciences, development, simulation.

For more please open this linkPaper 4: Grigorina Boce, Alma Hyra, Frida Zisko




Author(s): Gledis Toçila a
a Student, Faculty of Engineering, Canadian Institute of Technology,


This research paper provides a survey which addresses factors that make a significant impact on customer online shopping process and the assessment of their importance during this process. It is focused on five different sections consisting of demographics, security, time saving, product quality, website features and customer service. The Albanian case is interesting to study because it has grown into giant leaps since 2020, and a slight amount of scientific studies are publicly available about it. As a result, a better understanding of Albanian customers attitude towards online shopping is likely to be convenient for monitoring upcoming problems and concerns. The motivation behind this study arises from the risk perception as well as speculations that inevitably exist among consumers regarding the significance of the influence of decisive factors on the shopping online process in Albania. The purpose of this scientific study is to appropriately investigate how Albanian consumers’ point of view towards products’ quality, website features, customer service as well as their security perception have a considerable effect on their online purchases. Data were collected via self-administered questionnaire which contains 26 questions split in 6 sections and it was answered by 206 Albanians. One-way ANOVA were utilized to evaluate the difference between independent or explanatory variables and dependent variable such as customers’ reaction towards online shopping. Further scientific study should be mainly focused on exploring more factors impacting consumers’ reaction towards e-commerce purchases through online shopping as well as assessing their importance in this process.
Keywords: online shopping, demographics, security, time saving, product quality, website features, customer service.

For more please open this linkPaper 5: Gledis Toçila




Author(s): PhD. Rezart Dibra a
a Lecturer, University College of Business,


The use of behavioral science in government and policy and regulation has been gaining popularity and momentum over the last five to ten years. Applications have historically been related to individual behavior – either individuals working within government or citizens themselves. However, there is growing interest among governments and policy institutions to utilize behavioral science to enhance organizational behavior – from government institutions themselves to external organizations that interact with and are regulated by governments. Organizational Behavior is the identification, analyzing and application of knowledge about how individuals and groups act in organizations. It interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the person, group, organization, and whole social system. Objective of it is to build better relationships by achieving people objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives. It encompasses a wide range of areas, such as human behavior, Training and development, change management, leadership, teams, Group behavior etc. In the study of organizational behavior and diversity, the use of models, theories, and past experience are each helpful in gaining a complete understanding. Individuals within an organization behave as they do as a result of the context in which they are immersed. This short article seeks to examine this context in order to further the cause of helping managers deal with issues in their organizations from a standpoint of knowledge and understanding, rather than guesswork and outdated methods. First, the organization as a system will be discussed, including its interdependence upon other systems. Next, the importance of relationships as a vital part of the operation of organizations will be mentioned. Then, the management of diversity will be outlined, leading to a discussion of the importance of culture in influencing values. This paper is a theoretical paper with some concept in the behavior organizational as a important part of management.
Keywords: human behavior, organizational structure, individuals behavior etc.

For more please open this linkPaper 6: Rezart Dibra




Author(s): Artemenko E.A. a Gavrilova T.V b
a Student, Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology (UNITECH), Russia,
b Senior Lecturer, Leonov Moscow Region University of Technology (UNITECH), Russia


This article deals with the basic concepts of this topic, illustrating the need for organizations to introduce heat maps as a means to optimize marketing decisions. The application of this resource in various areas of the organization’s activities are studied in detail, as well as the options for using heat maps to study the desires and preferences of the consumer. The article also provides an analysis of correct and incorrect utilization of heat maps, and how their data should be interpreted to maximize website effectiveness.
Keywords: neuromarketing, marketing, heat maps, consumer behavior.
JEL: M31, M370, M300.

For more please open this linkPaper 7: Artemenko E.A, Gavrilova T.V





Author(s): Dr. Arbresh Raveni a
a Lecturer, Faculty of Social Sciences, “Mother Teresa” University-Skopje,


The aim of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of fiscal policy as a means of influencing output in North Macedonia. We apply a VEC model, and use quarterly data for the period 2000q1-2019q4. Our findings suggest that the possibility of fiscal policy to be used as a short-term stabilization tool was limited by the turbulent early phase of transition and several IMF arrangements; the exchange rate peg; and the scarcity of financial resources. The results of the baseline model suggest that a government spending
shock is more effective as a stabilization fiscal tool in Macedonia, compared to a tax shock, although fiscal multipliers smaller than one suggest that the effectiveness of fiscal policy in boosting output is limited. The findings confirm the importance of structural characteristics, suggesting that not accounting for monetary policy reaction and debt dynamics will result in an overstatement of fiscal multipliers. In particular, the results suggest that the “crowding out” effect of fiscal policy due to interest rate pressure
is absent and that monetary policy is accommodating an expansionary fiscal policy. The results of our investigation suggest that an increase in government expenditures will induce a significant increase in taxes. Moreover, although an increase in spending/taxes will result in a short-lived increase/decrease in public debt, as a priori expected, we find a long-equilibrium relationship between government spending and taxation suggesting that debt sustainability is not an issue in the case of Macedonia.                                                                                          Keywords: fiscal policy, fiscal multipliers, government spending, taxation, North Macedonia.

For more please open this linkPaper 8: Dr. Arbresh Raveni



Habib Hamam
Université de Moncton, Nouveau-Brunswick, Canada
Research field
Physics with focus on Telecommunications, Electrical and Communications Engineer, Engineering


Abstract: Geometrical optics offers the formalism of compound systems by using for instance the Gauss’ method. This formalism notably simplifies the analysis of image formation. Since this theory does not take into account the wave character of light, it is desirable to extend the formalism of compound systems to scalar theory of diffraction which offers a more accurate tool of analysis. This paper treats this extension and shows its importance. For illustration, the system of human eye is considered. The analysis is simplified by using a lenses-based model of the Fresnel transform.
Keywords: geometrical optics, scalar theory of diffraction, Fresnel transform, compound systems.

For more please open this link: Paper 1: Habib Hamam




Erjona Deshati
Lecturer and Researcher, Canadian Institute of Technology (CIT), Tirana, Albania
Research field
Business Management, Business Strategy, Marketing, Leadership


Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate what makes an effective leader as perceived in private universities in Albania. Interviews were carried out through administration of a questionnaire of forty-seven participants in the selected university. At the conclusion of each questionnaire, the participants were asked to highlight what makes an effective leader as per their perception of what a leader is in the institution. The findings revealed that a trustworthy leader and who exhibits a high level of integrity makes an effective leader. Additionally, it is their role to provide direction for the institution, primarily for the leaders at the executive level that is involved in policy administration and adoption.
Keywords: Leader, Higher Education, effective leadership

For more please open this link: Paper 2: Erjona Deshati




Albana Demi (Mosho)
Lecturer and Researcher at Alexander Moisiu University of Durrës, Albania
Research field
Designing tax system and fiscal policies, Standards of accounting and accounting reports
in PPPs and management
Miljana Xhakolli
Tirana International Airport (TIA).
Research field
Public politics, Human rights


Abstract: This research paper aimed to review the main social indicator, which is used to assess poverty and quality of life, as well as to calculate minimum wages, minimum pensions and basic social payments. The traditional way of measuring poverty is based on income. A family is considered poor when its income falls below the minimum level needed to meet the basic needs of its members. In the written and electronic literature this level is usually called the subsistence level or the poverty line. Currently in our country, there is a lack of official data regarding the vital minimum indicator. In this way, Albania is the only one among the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, without an official indicator of the defined subsistence minimum, which means that our country currently lacks the basic level of poverty measurement. The International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Bank, the IMF, the Trade Unions, the People’s Advocate, and the Albanian Parliament have from time to time addressed suggestions to the government for setting the official minimum wage indicator. We believe that from this point of view, this study can also serve to revise economic growth strategies and reduce poverty. The living wage indicator is also used in other studies, to be compared with salaries, pensions, etc., but also with the total income of employees on the basis of family budgets. The study will serve to compare the official minimum living wage for an employee with the minimum wage and the size of pensions, social assistance, unemployment benefits, etc. As it is known, in Albania, the level of pensions is determined by law, while the level of the minimum wage, the amount in value of economic assistance, payment of unemployment and disability payment are determined by a Decision of the Council of Ministers. None of these poverty indicators is directly based on the vital minimum indicator.
Keywords: Women, labor market, gender, economy, inequality, Poverty, wage, pension.

For more please open this linkPaper 3: Albana Demi (Mosho), Miljana Xhakolli




Gjergji Shqau
University “Aleksander Xhuvani”, Elbasan, Albania
Research field
Organizational Behavior, Leadership, Business Communication, Consumer Behavior
Vaso Qano
Vice Rector, Faculty of Economy, Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana, Albania
Research field
Education, Teaching Physics, Physics and Astronomy books for high schools
Elda Shqau (Sulkja)
Regional Directorate of Health Elbasan City
Research field


Abstract: Effective management of queues can significantly improve the performance of the organization in general or the unit where it applies in particular. Effective management of queues is most needed when the service is face to face, i.e. “tangible”, visible and that actually happens in a certain unit. This work aims at identifying the role of several factors (skills, technology, etc.) in the queuing model. The focus of selective surveillance is on all those organizations that have service systems. Service time in the system depends not only on the management of the model but also on some factors which if evaluated (taken into consideration) can significantly improve service results. After a detailed review of the literature, we created the possibility of designing the most effective techniques and methods for gathering information, which was then processed with various computer programs. The proposed model as well as the decision tree is the main results of the presents work. The study has managed to achieve its purpose, as well as to give at the end some recommendations for all those service systems where the queue is applied.
Keywords: system, waiting, queuing, time, service, customer.

For more please open this linkPaper 4: Gjergji Shqau, Vaso Qano, Elda Shqau (Sulkja)




Besarta Tafa
Faculty of Economy, Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana, Albania
Research field
Finance, Accounting, Banking, Financial Institutions, Risk Management, Islamic Finance
Gjergji Tafa
Charisma University, UK
Research field
Public Finance, Computerized Accounting, Fiscal policy, Monetary policy


Abstract: The global pandemic of Covid-19, being an unpredicted event, has caused a collapse in the entire world economy. Different countries have taken different approaches to deal with the economic problems derived from it. This paper aims to make an analysis of the economic and financial developments of the USA by figuring out the condition before and after the pandemic. An important stress will be put on the monetary policy followed by the government of the USA. For a good analysis, a comparison between economic indicators and their behavior, before and after the pandemic, will be done. It will be discussed about the economic activity, the labor market, inflation and the economic and financial stability. These unusual conditions have their effect also in the financial market. The credit quality of firms as well as the performance of financial institutions is mostly affected. The yields on securities and the spread of yields of bonds in comparison with treasury bills is also an important indicator to be studied.

Given the problematic situation the government of the USA tried to influence through the monetary and the fiscal policy. The increase on the money supply by keeping the FED interest rates near to zero has been one of the measures for recovering the economy. Another important measure to address the problem has been the safeguarding of the market functioning. On the other hand, the help of the government by the fiscal policy has been immediate, even though it is expected to increase the government outlays. The methodology used by this paper will be a theoretical comparison of economic development before and after the pandemic, based on row data generated by the reports of Federal Reserves. Statistical data will also be used in order to support the analysis. It concludes that the pandemic has affected the entire world, not only from the health viewpoint bat economically as well. The USA, as the leading economy in the world faced the challenge of finding the most appropriate measures to recover from the downturn. The effects of its policies will continue in the long run and there is needed some time to overcome them.
Keywords: Covid-19pandemic, economic and financial developments, monetary and fiscal policy, crisis, recovery

For more please open this link: Paper 5: Besarta Tafa, Gjergji Tafa




Pamela Sida
Student, Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana, Albania
Research field
Strategy, Management


Abstract: Unemployment has been accepted as a worrying problem for all society since the beginning of transition. The market is full of different obstacles and barriers. Searching for a job is now a job itself. Making a plan to find a job requires active and continuous work, while staying passive is not an option. The aim of this study is to show the impact that the lack of ‘searching for a job’ strategy has on being unemployed. The research method used is the quantitative one. The data collection method is an administrated in group questionnaire. The study consists of a comparison between two age groups, concretely between 50 youngsters, aged 18-23, and 50 other youngsters, aged 24-29. From the data analysis it resulted that: (a) the sample of this study is passive and doesn’t pay the needed importance and time to search for a job (b) young people have a noted lack of information for the chances that the market offers (c) they don’t have a ‘searching for a job’ strategy and this leads to unemployment.
Keywords: Youth, ‘searching for a job’ strategy, unemployment, unemployed.

For more please open this linkPaper 6: Pamela Sida



Lule Basha1, Llukan Puka2, 3
1, 2 Department of Applied Mathematics,
1, 2 Faculty of Natural Science, University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania
3 Canadian Institute of Technology, St. Andon Zako Çajupi, Zayed Center, Tirana 100, Albania


There are several statistical methods for time to event analysis, among which is the Cox proportional hazards model, that is most commonly used. In this model, the effect of the covariates is assumed to act multiplicatively on the baseline hazard rate and the ratio of the hazards is constant over survival time. However, when the proportionality assumption for the Cox proportional hazards model is not satisfied, an additive hazard regression model may be more appropriate. In this study, we give an overview of this approach and then apply Aalen’s additive hazard regression model to a data set which contain the job tenure for Albanian employees and variables that are thought of as important factors in the job tenure. The Aalen model allows for time-varying covariate effects and is used to assess the impact that age of the employee, the age at which he started the job, salary, gender, position and years of work in front of the current position may have in job termination.
Keywords: Job tenure, Survival analysis, Cox proportional hazard model, Aalen’s additive hazard regression model.

For more please open this linkPaper 1: Lule Basha, Llukan Puka




Habib Hamam
Faculty of Engineering, University of Moncton, NB, E1A 3E9, Canada


A novel method, for designing pantographs, is presented. An iterative algorithm is used to design a distribution of bright and dark spots to be embedded in the original document. This distribution should make the word “void”, “invalid”, or “copy” visible on the photocopy or the scanned version of the original document. We used an iterative algorithm to optimize the pantograph. We can start from a random distribution, or from a deterministic distribution based on Dirac pulses properties.
Keywords: Pantographs, Protection of Documents, Fourier Optics.

For more please open this linkPaper 2: Habib Hamam




Silva Bashllari1, Klea Korbi1, Alba Skëndaj2, Evis Plaku1, 3
1 Canadian Institute of Technology, St. Andon Zako Çajupi, Zayed Center, Tirana 100, Albania
2 Universiteti Metropolitan Tirana, St. Pjeter Budi Tiranë, 1000, Albania
3 E-mail address:


The traditional classroom environment is gradually losing its monopoly as the sole setting of learning. Digital learning is becoming an attractive model across the higher education spectrum as new innovative information technologies have become widely available. Online learning is used as a tool that improves learning performance while combating the reduction in resources. This work presents a novel study focusing on estimating the efficiency of online learning in comparison to traditional learning for computer related fields in education institutions in Albania. A survey is conducted to estimate the impact that the learning modality has on students enrolled in computer
technology related fields. The study focuses on measuring the role that intrinsic factors, teaching practices, learning intentions and programming expertise have on the perceived usefulness and the efficacy of online learning. Measuring the role and effect of the learning modality will be important to estimating whether students and higher level education institutions are ready to shift towards online learning, or to integrate it into the current traditional framework. The results of our study are useful to have a better understanding of the benefits of online learning alongside with the challenges that need to be addressed in order to improve the teaching experience and outcomes.
Keywords: Online learning, traditional learning, course delivery methodology, blended learning, computer-related fields.

For more please open this linkPaper 3: Silva Bashllari, Klea Korbi, Alba Skëndaj, Evis Plaku




Klaudio Fifo
Canadian Institute of Technology, St. Andon Zako Çajupi, Zayed Center, Tirana 100, Albania
E-mail address:


Merger and Acquisition decisions are about timing, opportunity, and decision. In the business world, these three words are partially influenced by the strength of the stock market. The timing is when the stock market is highly valued which results in high stock valuation, after that is the opportunity which means to find a target or if an existing target has lower stock valuation and finally comes the decision to make whether to use cash or equity for the transaction. Since companies can use its stock as leverage to
acquire companies, a highly valued market gives the companies the resource with which to make purchases. Therefore, the question arises whether the stock market influences the decision for companies to engage in M&A transactions. This question is addressed in this study using a relatively large panel data of M&A activity for the period 2008-2017. The econometric tool used in this study is regression analysis. The measurement that this study used to value the stock market is by measuring the stock market capitalization to GDP ratio of a country. The results displayed that the stock market to GDP ratio is statistically significant at 5% risk on the M&A activity and with a 1% increase in the stock market we expect a 0.1729% increase in the M&A activity. Additionally, the paper suggests the development of a regression model that can measure the FDI inflows in Albania, and this is achieved by adjusting the regression model variables in order to become more suitable for its economy.
Keywords: Mergers & Acquisitions volume, market value, developing markets, emerging markets, Albanian economy.

For more please open this linkPaper 4: Klaudio Fifo




Klea Cani, Brendon Pojani.
Tirana, Albania.


Living in the era of globalization made the spread of the virus to affect the entire world’s economy. The stock market plays a huge role in the well-going of the economy and for this reason the changes that have happened due the pandemic affected on everyone’s lives. Stock market is a perfect investment for all because saving in the stock market is the safest way to produce returns over time that can surpass inflation and now it is being affected by the virus. It is a fact that the stock market and the economy are related together. Many industries have been badly hit by the virus but also some other companies have had major benefits and for this reason the financial market changed directly in an unexpected way. So the market itself reacts to these changes and also should continue to deal with problems that have existed in it before the virus. Many of the problems surfacing now are actually derived from the great crisis that happened in 2008. Recession might happen if the situation goes on for too long but there are facts that also throw this down.
Keywords: Covid-19, Stocks, Epidemic, Economy, Industry, Impact.

For more please open this linkPaper 5: Klea Cani, Brendon Pojani




Prof. Assoc. Dr. Gjergji Shqau
Department of Business Administration Faculty of Economics, “Aleksandër Xhuvani” University, Elbasan, Albania


This article aims to study the behavior of political and organizational leaders as well as identify common areas and differences between them. Four objectives have been set for this and it is thought that the methodology used will be as effective as possible in achieving the goal and objectives. Organizational leadership has been studied in companies with experience and expertise, with the results of the work of leaders, while political leadership is mainly focused on the behavior of political leaders during their tenure. Organizational and political leaders have been studied not only currently but mainly in the past. This constitutes a difficulty in reaching accurate conclusions, but not an inability to observe leadership behaviors and traits. Various research techniques and methods have been used to gather information, including data processing. At the end of the article are given the conclusions, the conclusions and some recommendations for both types of leaders.
Keywords: leadership, organizational, politic, characteristics, behaviors, features.

For more please open this linkPaper 6: Gjergji Shqau

Geometric progression as a solution to the extremum problem


Areshev Dmitry a ,  Samarova Svetlana b
a State Budgetary Higher Educational Institution Moscow Region                                                                                                                                                                                                                   «University of Technology» (UNITECH), Korolev city, Moscow region, 141070, Russia
b Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University),                                                                                                                                                                                                                Dolgoprudny city, Moscow region, 141701, Russia


The article is devoted to formulation and solving a problem of finding extremums of multivariable special functions. We will demonstrate that the solution of the problem is geometric progression.
Keywords: multivariable function, extremum, geometric progression.

For more please open this linkPaper 1: Areshev Dmitry, Samarova Svetlana


Performance Study of an Improved Version of Li-Fi and Wi-Fi Networks


Abdulsalam Alkholidi, Sondos Al-shami, Aisha Al-aghbary, and Habib Hamam, Member, IEEE


With the increasing demand and need for telecommunication technologies, wireless communication has become a heavily useful and widely popular utility. Capacity, availability, efficiency, and security are issues generally linked to wireless communications, more specifically Wi-Fi systems. Yet we can exploit billions of light bulbs, which we use anywhere and everywhere on a daily basis and of which the infrastructure is already part of our ordinary life. This study focuses on Li-Fi theory and practices. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how these light sources can be used as a transmitter or, to be more precise, as an access point. This idea was proposed for the first time by Prof. Harald Hass in Global TED (2011). During the last two years, Li-Fi technology has been enhanced and improved by many professional and international studies. As new wireless communication technology develops to use LED, the efficiency, availability, security, and safety of light fidelity transform today’s telecommunication into tomorrow’s visible light communication.
Keywords: BER, FDMA, Li-Fi, NOMA, OOK modulation, Visible Light Communications (VLC), and Wi-Fi.

For more please open this linkPaper 2: Abdulsalam Alkholidi, Sondos-Al-shami, Aisha-Al-aghbary, Habib Hamam


Impact of Culture on Organizational Behavior and Different Managerial Indicators: Case of SMEs in Albania


Assoc. Prof. Dr. Gjergji Shqau a; Assoc. Prof. Dr. Vaso Qano b; MSc. Elda Shqau c
a Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics, “Aleksandër Xhuvani” University, Elbasan, Albania
b Lecturer, Faculty of Economy, Canadian Institute of Technology, Tirana, Albania
c Department of HRPR, Regional District Public Health, Elbasan


Culture is one of the most important elements of an organization’s success. Some scholars consider culture to be an important part of the environment of the organization; some parallel it with the environment, while other scholars regard it as a separate part and as an important variable beside of other environmental factors. In all cases, culture is considered to have an impact on different technical-financial indicators but also on other organization’s indicators. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the role of culture, the impact it has on different parts of the organization and its impact in macro and micro managerial indicators. Continuous improvement of culture can significantly increase the effectiveness and results of work. On the basis of the main goal, hypotheses have been raised about the relationship between types of culture and the impact on different indicators, socialization and level of cultures on indicators such as productivity, performance, satisfaction, turnovers, shortages, motivation, etc.
Using a Likert method and a logical factorial model, a summary table has been compiled that links qualitative and quantitative indicators. Qualitative indicators are classified into two sections on the types of culture and socialization. The second section divides culture into three levels according to Shein’s study. Questionnaire data has been processed in all cases, and with five degrees of evaluation achieved in different quantitative evaluation indicators, which give meaning to qualitative indicators. In cases where the indicators are larger than the average or more than four, the link to the influence of culture is considered strong.
At the end of this paper, conclusions and suggestions are given for the importance that should be attached to culture in general and to all cultures with a positive impact on organizational behavior and managerial indicators. If forms of negative culture “thrive” in organizations, better management is recommended.
Keywords: Organizational Behavior; Managerial Indicators; SMEs; Culture.

For more please open this linkPaper 3: Gjergji Shqau, Vaso Qano, Elda Shqau


The impact of Human Resource policies and practices on employee outcomes: A Case of Kosovo


Kaltrina Kajtazi
City college, the International Faculty of the University of Sheffield, Thessaloniki, Greece


Considering the need of Kosovo for Human Resources field, especially the need for conducting a research in large companies, encouraged this research to be started. The three participant companies in this research were Telecom of Kosovo, Kosovo Energy Corporation and Bank for business. Is expressed much need to explore some of the most important policies and practices across companies, such as recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation and benefits as well as perceived organizational support. And on the other hand, observing the impact they have on employees, ranging from job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover. Many researches that have been accomplished leave behind a large number of gaps waiting to be met by others and the gaps that have been identified from the previous studies related to this topic are filled by this research. In this research the most fitted methodology approach seemed to be triangulation, where are distributed 50 questionnaires to the employees of the respondent companies and 20 interviews have been held with the HR Managers. So, based on the analyses that have been done, the objectives of this paper have been achieved and the questions have been answered. In many parts of findings are witnessed some strong and significant correlations between the outcomes of the employees and the implementation of HR policies. In addition, the answers of employees differ from the answers of HR policies, since the latter have responded positively about the execution of the practices in question.
The academic contribution of this study is witnessed related to the gaps derived by the previous studies which this research has filled and the practitioner contribution of it is linked with the help that this research gives to the participant companies in terms of the crafting policies and executing practices in their business environment. The most important recommendation is that the HR managers should improve their executing process of these policies and practices. However, based on the limitations of this research are flown the need for further studies to be filled by next researches, such as the need to conduct this issue in manufacturing and service firms and to compare the findings between the two sectors.
Keywords: HR policies and practices, recruitment and selection, training and development, compensations and benefits, organizational support, employees’ outcomes, job satisfaction, commitment, turnover.

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